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Upaya Perlindungan Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil Pemerintah Provinsi Sumatera Barat dari Ancaman Abrasi dan Perubahan Iklim

Program Studi Keamanan Maritim. FKN, Universitas Pertahanan, Indonesia

Received: 1 Dec 2021; Revised: 2 Jan 2022; Accepted: 6 Jan 2022; Available online: 20 Jan 2022; Published: 2 Apr 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Abstract

Kerusakan pesisir dan pulau-pulau kecil akibat abrasi dan dampak perubahan iklim di Provinsi Sumatera Barat sudah di tingkat yang mengkhawatirkan. Kondisi geografis Sumatera Barat yang berhadapan langsung dengan Samudera Hindia membuat sifat tumbukan gelombang di pesisir relatif kuat sehingga abrasi berlangsung dengan cepat. Kerusakan ekosistem mangrove akibat penebangan, alih fungsi lahan, pencemaran muara, dan kerusakan terumbu karang akibat penggunaan bom, potas, dan pemutihan karang, turut mempercepat terjadinya abrasi. Kerusakan pesisir dan pulau-pulau kecil perlu dicegah karena dapat mengurangi keunggulan strategis pertahanan di wilayah terluar, mengganggu efektivitas fungsi infrastruktur sipil dan militer di pesisir, mengganggu stabilitas ekonomi dan mengurangi ruang hidup masyarakat, membahayakan navigasi, dan mengancam keanekaragaman hayati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sumberdaya dan upaya pemerintah daerah Provinsi Sumatera Barat dalam melindungi pesisir dan pulau-pulau kecil dari abrasi dan dampak perubahan iklim. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada 15-23 September 2019 di Kota Padang dan di Pulau Sipora. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode observasi, dan wawancara mendalam kepada pejabat instansi pemerintah daerah dan warga di sekitar pesisir. Data dianalisis menggunakan teknik data condensation, data display, dan conclusion drawing. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan instansi-instansi daerah memiliki keunggulan uniknya masing-masing dalam mendukung pencegahan abrasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim, namun upaya-upaya yang dilaksanakan masih bersifat sporadis, reaktif, tidak terkoordinasi, dan tidak berkelanjutan. Sumber daya bahan baku untuk pencegahan abrasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim tersedia melimpah di Sumatera Barat, namun sumber daya keorganisasian yang dimiliki instansi daerah relatif terbatas. Kondisi ini membuat abrasi dan dampak perubahan iklim tidak dapat dicegah secara efektif.

ABSTRACT

West Sumatera Province has an alarming rate of coastal and small islands destruction caused by abrasion and the effect of climate change. Geographical characteristic of West Sumatera Province which directly face Hindia Ocean quickly have it’s coastal area eroded with abrasion caused by a strong wave. The destruction of mangrove forest and coral reefs further made the abrasion process worse. Coastal and small islands destruction need to be stopped because it could reduce military strategic advantage in national outer areas, reducing the effectiveness of military and civilian infrastructures, destabilizing economy and narrowing the living space of people, endangering the safety of ship navigation, and threatening nature’s biodiversity. The aim of this research is to understand the resources and actions of West Sumatera Province’s local government of how it protect the coastal area and small islands from abrasion and to adapt to the effects of climate change. The research was conducted in September 15 to 23 in 2019 at Padang City and Sipora Island of Kepulauan Mentawai Regency. Data collected by field observation and in-depth interview to officials from local government and the locals. Data analyzed by using data condensation, data display, and conclusion drawing analytical technique. The research shows that each provincional departments under West Sumatera Province local government have it’s own unique approach and technique to prevent abrasion and adapt to the effects of climate change, but the action taken usually implemented sporadically, reactive, uncoordinated, and not sustainable. Natural resources needed to prevent abrasion and to adapt to climate change are abundant, but the Province’s organisational resources is limited, causing the coastal area and small islands innefectively protected

 

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Keywords: Pesisir; Pulau-Pulau Kecil; Abrasi,; Perubahan Iklim; Perlindungan.

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