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Kesuburan Tanah Di Bawah Tegakan Berbagai Jenis Bambu Pada Tanah Andosol-Regosol

Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional (BRIN), Indonesia

Received: 4 Feb 2022; Revised: 9 Mar 2022; Accepted: 13 Apr 2022; Available online: 20 Mar 2022; Published: 4 Jul 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Abstract

Permintaan bambu yang meningkat dapat dipenuhi dari peningkatan produktivitas bambu melalui budidaya yang intensif. Namun demikian, pengelolaan bambu telah menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan sifat tanah yang terkait dengan kesuburan. Pengelolaan bambu secara intensif juga berdampak terhadap hara di area rizosfer dan material biologis di dalamnya yang berpeluang mengganggu siklus nutrisi dan pengikatan karbon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan menilai pengaruh lima jenis bambu yaitu bambu ater (Gigantochloa atter), bambu hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae), bambu andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae), bambu temen (Gigantochloa verticillata), dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper) terhadap kesuburan tanah di bawahnya. Rumpun bambu yang dipilih terdiri dari lima jenis bambu yaitu bambu ater, bambu hitam, bambu andong, bambu temen, dan bambu petung. Satu rumpun bambu dipilih secara acak dari masing-masing jenis tersebut. Parameter pengukuran meliputi jumlah batang, lingkar rumpun dan kerapatan rumpun, diameter batang, tinggi batang dan berat segar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis bambu temen memiliki nilai karakteristik kesuburan tanah di bawah tegakan yang lebih baik dari jenis bambu lainnya.  Bambu temen memiliki nilai total basa-basa dapat ditukar, ketersediaan unsur fosfor (P), Kapasitas Tukar Kation (KTK) dan Kejenuhan Basa masing-masing sebesar 11,28 meq/100 gr; 18,7 ppm; 22,4 meq/100 gr dan 50,4%. Bambu andong dan bambu petung memiliki karakteristik pertumbuhan dan produktivitas biomasa yang lebih besar dari jenis-jenis bambu lainnya. Bambu andong memiliki berat biomasa per lingkar rumpun sebesar 130,5 kg/m dan diameter batang sebesar 10,0 cm. Sementara itu bambu petung memiliki berat biomasa per lingkar rumpun sebesar 108,0 kg/m dan diameter batang sebesar 10,0 cm. Meskipun bambu andong dan bambu petung memiliki pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dari bambu lainnya, namun kesuburan tanahnya di bawah tegakan tidak sebaik dengan kesuburan tanah di bawah tegakan bambu temen. Dengan demikian, untuk keperluan mengkonservasi kesuburan tanah tetap baik maka bambu temen adalah pilihan yang terbaik dibandingkan dengan jenis bambu lainnya.

ABSTRACT

The increasing demand for bamboo can be met by increasing the productivity of bamboo through intensive cultivation. However, bamboo management has led to changes in soil properties related to fertility. Intensive bamboo management also has an impact on nutrients in the rhizosphere area and the biological material in it which has the opportunity to disrupt the nutrient cycle and carbon sequestration. This study aims to analyze and assess the effect of five types of bamboo, namely bamboo ater (Gigantochloa atter), bamboo hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae), bamboo andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae), bamboo temen (Gigantochloa verticillata), and bamboo petung (Dendrocalamus asper) on the fertility of the soil in beneath of bamboo stand. The selected bamboo clumps consisted of five types of bamboo, namely bamboo ater, bamboo hitam, bamboo andong, bamboo temen, and bamboo petung. One bamboo clump was selected at random from each of these species. The measurement parameters included number of culm, clump circumference and clump density, culm diameter, culm height and fresh weight. The results showed that the bamboo temen species had better soil fertility characteristics under the stand than other bamboo species. Bamboo temen has a total value of exchangeable bases, availability of phosphorus (P), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Base Saturation of 11.28 meq/100 gr each; 18.7 ppm; 22.4 meq/100 gr and 50.4%, respectively. Bamboo andong and bamboo petung have higher growth characteristics and biomass productivity than other types of bamboo. Bamboo andong has a biomass weight per clump circumference of 130.5 kg/m and a culm diameter of 10.0 cm. Meanwhile, bamboo petung has a biomass weight per clump circumference of 108.0 kg/m and a culm diameter of 10.0 cm. Although the bamboo andong and bamboo petung had better growth than other bamboos, the soil fertility under the stands was not as good as the soil fertility under the bamboo temen stands. Thus, for the purpose of conserving good soil fertility, bamboo temen is the best choice compared to other types of bamboo.


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Keywords: Soil fertility; Beneath of bamboo stand; Characteristic; Growth; Productivity
Funding: Forest Research and Development Center, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5 Kota Bogor

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