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Karakteristik Sampah Sungai dan Perilaku Masyarakat Pesisir Terhadap Sampah Plastik: Studi Kasus di Sungai Pengarengan, Kabupaten Cirebon

1Sekolah Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Indonesia, Jl. Salemba Raya, Kampus UI Salemba No.4, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia 10430., Indonesia

2Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, KKP, Jakarta, Indonesia

Received: 7 Jun 2022; Revised: 8 Dec 2022; Accepted: 20 Dec 2022; Available online: 3 Jan 2023; Published: 9 Jan 2023.
Editor(s): Budi Warsito

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Abstract

Penggunaan plastik terus meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya populasi. Sayangnya, konsumsi plastik yang tinggi tidak diikuti dengan pengelolaan yang tepat sehingga menyebabkan sampah plastik yang berasal dari darat masuk ke badan sungai kemudian berakhir di wilayah pesisir dan mencemari lingkungan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Desa Pengarengan, Kabupaten Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Sungai Pengarengan merupakan jalur transportasi kapal nelayan menuju Laut Jawa, sehingga aktivitas masyarakatnya yang tinggi berpotensi menimbulkan pencemaran sampah ke lingkungan sekitarnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik sampah plastik serta mengevaluasi hubungan antara aspek pengetahuan dengan perilaku masyarakat terkait sampah plastik yang mencemari lingkungan. Metode yang digunakan adalah kelimpahan pelepasan sampah dan puing-puing sampah dikumpulkan di dua titik sampling dengan menggunakan jaring yang memiliki ukuran mata jaring 5cm, dipasang pada waktu pagi hari sesuai lebar sungai. Data perilaku masyarakat terhadap sampah plastik diperoleh dari 110 responden dengan menggunakan teknik accidental sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan total kelimpahan puing sampah sungai adalah 13200 ± 1678 item dan 14976 ± 1772 item. Kelimpahan puing sampah sungai tertinggi adalah bungkus sampah plastik tipis sebanyak 47% dan 46%, diikuti kayu ranting (39% dan 33%), styrofoam (3,6% dan 5,5%), sedotan (1,8% dan 2,2%), gelas plastik (1,5% dan 2,6%), kotak makanan, peralatan plastik, dll (1,4% dan 1,6%), serta plastik lainnya (2,2% dan 2,3%). Analisis statistik Kruskal Wallis menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang siginifikan terhadap kelimpahan total puing sampah plastik sungai di kedua titik sampling p= 0,875 (p> 0,05). Hasil evaluasi perilaku masyarakat menunjukkan bahwa aspek pengetahuan memiliki kategori penilaian sangat baik (4,08), aspek sikap dengan kategori kurang baik (2,89), dan aspek perilaku dengan kategori baik (3,88). Analisis korelasi Pearson menunjukan terdapat hubungan positif yang kuat (r= 0,664) dan signifikan (sig.= 0,000)  antara aspek pengetahuan dengan perilaku. Aspek sikap dengan perilaku mempunyai hubungan positif yang lemah (r=0,183) dan signifikan (0,028).

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Keywords: sampah plastik; sampah sungai; perilaku masyarakat; pencemaran sungai

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