skip to main content

Association of food consumption and physical activity with metabolic syndrome according to central obesity status in Indonesian adults: A cross-sectional study

1Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

2Departement of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Received: 10 Oct 2023; Published: 28 Dec 2023.

Citation Format:

Background: Previous studies have reported that the risk of metabolic syndrome differs between obese and non-obese individuals based on food consumption and physical activity.

Objective: This study aims to analyze differences in the association of food consumption and physical activity with the incidence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without central obesity.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined individuals aged 19 to 64 years using Riskesdas 2018 data. Sample characteristics, including smoking habits, alcohol consumption, food consumption, physical activity, anthropometric data, clinical data, and biochemical data were collected for univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used as a multivariate analysis to investigate the association of food consumption and physical activity with the risk of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without central obesity.

Results: In this study, individuals with and without central obesity significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome (p<0.05) due to consuming nearly all kinds of unhealthy foods (sweet foods, savory foods, fatty/cholesterol-rich/fried foods, grilled foods, processed meat/chicken/fish, soft drinks/carbonated drinks, energy drinks, and instant noodles/other instant foods). However, only individuals without central obesity who frequently consume seasonings (OR=1.519, 95% CI: 1.241-1.859) have a significant association with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Meanwhile, only individuals with central obesity who often consume sugary drinks (OR=1.315, 95% CI: 1.132-1.529) are significantly associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as lack of physical activity also significantly increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without central obesity (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Only the consumption of seasonings and sugary drinks shows a different relationship to the risk of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without central obesity.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: central obesity; food consumption; metabolic syndrome; physical activity

Article Metrics:

  1. Wong MCS, Huang J, Wang J, Chan PSF, Lok V, Chen X, et al. Global, regional and time-trend prevalence of central obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 13.2 million subjects. Eur J Epidemiol [Internet]. 2020;35(7):673–83. DOI: 10.1007/s10654-020-00650-3
  2. Hu L, Huang X, You C, Li J, Hong K, Li P, et al. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. PLoS One [Internet]. 2017;12(9):1–14. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183934
  3. Ghaderian SB, Yazdanpanah L, Shahbazian H, Sattari AR, Latifi SM, Sarvandian S. Prevalence and Correlated Factors of Obesity, Overweight and Central Obesity in Southwest of Iran. Iran J Public Health [Internet]. 2019;48(7):1354–61
  4. Dagne S, Menber Y, Petrucka P, Wassihun Y. Prevalence and associated factors of abdominal obesity among the adult population in Woldia town, Northeast Ethiopia, 2020: Community-based cross-sectional Study. PLoS One [Internet]. 2021;16:1–16. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247960
  5. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 [Internet]. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI. 2013
  6. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI. Laporan Nasional RISKESDAS 2018 [Internet]. Jakarta; 2018
  7. Owolabi EO, Ter Goon D, Adeniyi OV. Central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: A cross-sectional study. J Heal Popul Nutr [Internet]. 2017;36(1):1–10. DOI: 10.1186/s41043-017-0133-x
  8. Bagheri F, Siassi F, Koohdani F, Mahaki B, Qorbani M, Yavari P, et al. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Pre-Diabetes: A Case-Control Study. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(5):874–81
  9. Ardekani MS, Salehi-Abargouei A, Mirzaei M, Fallahzadeh H, Nadjarzadeh A. Dietary habits in association with general and abdominal obesity in central Iran: Results from Yazd Health Study (YaHS). Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev [Internet]. 2018;13(4):2727–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.040
  10. Araujo TR, da Silva JA, Vettorazzi JF, Freitas IN, Lubaczeuski C, Magalhães EA, et al. Glucose intolerance in monosodium glutamate obesity is linked to hyperglucagonemia and insulin resistance in α cells. J Cell Physiol [Internet]. 2018;234(5):1–13. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.27455
  11. Arruda SPM, Moura da Silva AA, Kac G, Vilela AAF, Goldani M, Bettiol H BM. Dietary patterns Are Associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults. Eur J Nutr [Internet]. 2016;55(6):2081–91. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1022-y
  12. Brennan AM, Day AG, Cowan TE, Clarke GJ, Lamarche B, Ross R. Individual Response to Standardized Exercise: Total and Abdominal Adipose Tissue. Med Sci Sports Exerc [Internet]. 2020;52(2):490–7. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002140
  13. Lee YH, Park J, Min S, Kang O, Kwon H, Oh SW. Impact of Visceral Obesity on The Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight and Overweight groups: A Longitudinal Cohort Study in Korea. Korean J Fam Med [Internet]. 2020;41(4):229–36. DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.18.0122
  14. Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: A joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; World heart federation; International. Circulation. 2009;120(16):1640–5
  15. Eglit T, Rajasalu T, Lember M. Metabolic syndrome in Estonia: Prevalence and associations with insulin resistance. Int J Endocrinol [Internet]. 2012;2012:1–6. DOI: 10.1155/2012/951672
  16. Ruddock MW, Stein A, Landaker E, Park J, Cooksey RC, McClain D, et al. Saturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Hepatic Insulin Action by Modulating Insulin Receptor Expression and Post-receptor Signalling. J Biochem [Internet]. 2008;144(5):599–607. DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvn105
  17. Tu AW, Humphries KH, Lear SA. Longitudinal changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: Results from the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev [Internet]. 2017;11:S957–61. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2017.07.022
  18. Pinto AM, Bordoli C, Buckner LP, Kim C, Kaplan PC, Del Arenal IM, et al. Intermittent energy restriction is comparable to continuous energy restriction for cardiometabolic health in adults with central obesity: A randomized controlled trial; the Met-IER study. Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2019;39(6):1753–63. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.07.014
  19. Okube OT, Kimani S, Waithira M. Association of dietary patterns and practices on metabolic syndrome in adults with central obesity attending a mission hospital in Kenya: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2020;10(10). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039131
  20. Provido SMP, Abris GP, Hong S, Yu SH, Lee CB, Lee JE. Association of fried food intake with prehypertension and hypertension: The Filipino women’s diet and health study. Nutr Res Pract [Internet]. 2020;14(1):76–84. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2020.14.1.76
  21. Entwistle MR, Schweizer D, Cisneros R. Dietary patterns related to total mortality and cancer mortality in the United States. Cancer Causes Control [Internet]. 2021;32(11):1279–88. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-021-01478-2
  22. Jamka M, Mądry E, Krzyżanowska-Jankowska P, Skrypnik D, Szulińska M, Mądry R, et al. The effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on body composition and cardiometabolic markers in abdominally obese women: a randomised trial. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2021;11(1):1–14. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90526-7
  23. Wedell-Neergaard AS, Lang Lehrskov L, Christensen RH, Legaard GE, Dorph E, Larsen MK, et al. Exercise-Induced Changes in Visceral Adipose Tissue Mass Are Regulated by IL-6 Signaling: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cell Metab [Internet]. 2019;29(4):844-855.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.12.007
  24. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Meigs JB, et al. Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Developing Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and The Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Adults in The Community. Circulation. 2007;116(5):480–8
  25. Agodi A, Maugeri A, Kunzova S, Sochor O, Bauerova H, Kiacova N, et al. Association of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome: Results from the kardiovize brno 2030 study. Nutrients. 2018;10(7)
  26. An SJ, Jung MH, Ihm SH, Yang Y jung, Youn HJ. Effect of physical activity on the cardiometabolic profiles of non-obese and obese subjects: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. PLoS One [Internet]. 2019;14(3):1–14. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208189
  27. Leite MLC, Nicolosi A. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome factors in a non-diabetic Italian population. Public Health Nutr [Internet]. 2009;12(9):1494–503. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980008004539
  28. Suliga E, Cieśla E, Rębak D, Kozieł D, Głuszek S. Relationship Between Sitting Time, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults Depending on Body Mass Index (BMI). Med Sci Monit [Internet]. 2018;24:7633–45. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.907582
  29. Huang LY, Wang YP, Wei BF, Yang J, Wang JQ, Wu BH, et al. Deficiency of IRTKS as an adaptor of insulin receptor leads to insulin resistance. Cell Res [Internet]. 2013;23(11):1310–21. DOI: 10.1038/cr.2013.99
  30. Bennet L, Stenkula K, Cushman SW, Brismar K. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2016;16(1):1–12. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3892-1
  31. Tayyem RF, Al-Radaideh AM, Hammad SS, Al-Hajaj S, Allehdan SS, Agraib LM, et al. Subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes measured by MRI and their relationships with nutrient intakes among adults. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2019;28(2):300–9. DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.201906_28(2).0012
  32. Kurniasari R, Andriani E. Pengaruh Asupan Natrium Dalam Makanan Jajanan Terhadap Tekanan Darah Remaja ( Uji Cross Sectional Pada MahasiswaTingkat Pertama Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan UNSIKA ). Nutr Diaita [Internet]. 2018;10(2):41–8
  33. Mizéhoun-Adissoda C, Houinato D, Houehanou C, Chianea T, Dalmay F, Bigot A, et al. Dietary sodium and potassium intakes: Data from urban and rural areas. Nutrition [Internet]. 2017;33:35–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.08.007
  34. Parry SA, Woods RM, Hodson L, Hulston CJ. A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017;9(8). DOI: 10.3390/nu9080818
  35. Cheng M, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Ouyang Y, Zhang B. Relationship between dietary factors and the number of altered metabolic syndrome components in Chinese adults: A cross-sectional study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2017;7(5):1–12. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014911
  36. Helal EGE, Abdelaziz MA, El-Gamal MS. Adverse Effects of Mono Sodium Glutamate, Sodium Benzoate and Chlorophyllins on some Physiological Parameters in Male Albino Rats. Egypt J Hosp Med [Internet]. 2019;76(3):3702–8. DOI: 10.21608/ejhm.2019.39915
  37. Konieczna J, Morey M, Abete I, Bes-Rastrollo M, Ruiz-Canela M, Vioque J, et al. Contribution of ultra-processed foods in visceral fat deposition and other adiposity indicators: Prospective analysis nested in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2021;40(6):4290–300. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.019
  38. Zelber-Sagi S, Ivancovsky-Wajcman D, Fliss Isakov N, Webb M, Orenstein D, Shibolet O, et al. High red and processed meat consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. J Hepatol [Internet]. 2018;68(6):1239–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.01.015
  39. World Health Organization. Waist Circumference and Waist–Hip Ratio: Report of A WHO Expert Consultation: Ginebra, 8-11, 2011 [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2011. 8–11 p
  40. Khalili-Moghadam S, Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, Azizi F. The Mediterranean diet and risk of type 2 diabetes in Iranian population. Eur J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2019;73(1):72–8. DOI: 10.1038/s41430-018-0336-2
  41. Tucker LA. Fiber intake and insulin resistance in 6374 adults: The role of abdominal obesity. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018;10(2). DOI: 10.3390/nu10020237

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-05-26 08:54:55

No citation recorded.