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Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Musculoskeletal Disorders Pada Tenaga Kerja Bongkar Muat Di Pelabuhan Jayapura

Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Cenderawasih (Uncen), Jl. Raya Sentani-Abepura, Kampus Uncen Abepura Jayapura Papua 99351, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2023 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Aktivitas bongkar muat memakai bantuan tenaga manusia dengan melaksanakan pemindahan barang menuju gudang atau kapal penyimpanan menggunakan kendaraan pengangkut barang. Pekerjaan dengan sikap bekerja yang statis sangat memberikan potensi untuk mempercepat munculnya keluhan musculoskeletal disorders. Tujuan dari kegiatan meneliti ini guna melihat serta mencari tahu apa saja faktor yang berkaitan terhadap keluhan musculoskeletal disorders kepada para pekerja bongkar muat pada Pelabuhan Jayapura.

Metode: Desain kegiatan meneliti ini ialah deskriptif analitik yang menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional study. Sampel dalam kegiatan meneliti ini sebanyak 49 pekerja bongkar muat (TBKM) dengan teknik pengambilan sampel total sampling. Kriteria inklusi adalah TKBM dibagian pengangkutan dan pembongkaran peti kemas (container) dan jadwal bekerja setiap hari (senin-minggu), kriteria ekslusi adalah tidak bersedia menjadi responden. Pengukuran keluhan musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) menggunakan kuesioner Nordic Body Map, gerak berulang menggunakan stopwatch dan pengumpulan data seperti umur, masa kerja, durasi kerja dan kebiasaan merokok memakai sebuah kuesioner. Analisis data memakai pengujian chi square dengan taraf signifikan 95% (p <0,05).

Hasil: Analisis univariat dari 49 pekerja, ada 24 pekerja (49%) merasakan keluhan MSDs tingkat sedang, umur ˂35 tahun sebanyak 26 pekerja (53%), masa kerja ≥5 tahun sebanyak 33 pekerja (67%), durasi kerja ˃8 jam sebanyak 38 pekerja (78%), kebiasaan merokok sebanyak 49 pekerja (100%), dan gerak berulang≥10 gerakan/menit sebanyak 26 pekerja (53%). Hasil analisis bivariat menunjukan ada sebuah keterkaitan antara keluhan MSDs terhadap usia (p-value 0,000) serta masa kerja (p-value 0,000) sedangkan variabel yang tidak berkaitan dengan keluhan MSDs ialah durasi kerja (p-value 0,897) serta gerak berulang (p-value 0,071). 

Simpulan: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan masa kerja serta usia berhubungan terhadap keluhan MSDs.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Factors Related of Musculoskeletal Disorders  in Loading and Unloading Workers at the Port of Jayapura City

Background:Loading and unloading activities use human assistance by moving goods from ships or storage warehouses to goods transport vehicles. Jobs with a static work attitude have the potential to accelerate musculoskeletal disorders. This study aims to determine the factors associated with complaints of musculoskeletal disorders in loading and unloading workers at the Port of Jayapura.

Method:The design of this research is descriptive analytic with cross sectional study approach. The research sample consisted of 49 loading and unloading workers (TBKM) with a total sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were TKBM in the transport and unloading of containers and the work schedule every day (Monday-Sunday), the exclusion criteria were not willing to be a respondent. Measuring complaints of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) using the Nordic Body Map questionnaire, repetitive motion using a stopwatch and collecting data such as age, years of service, duration of work and smoking habits using a questionnaire. Data analysis used the chi square test with a significant level of 95% (p <0,05).

Result:Univariate analysis of 49 workers, 24 workers (49%) felt moderate MSDs complaints, 26 workers (53%) were aged ˂35 years, 33 workers (67%) had worked ≥5 years, worked ˃8 hours 38 workers (78%), smoking habits of 49 workers (100%), and repetitive motion ≥10 movements/minute of 26 workers (53%). The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between MSDs complaints and age (p-value 0,000) and years of service (p-value 0,000) while the variables not related to MSDs complaints were work duration (p-value 0,897) and repetitive motion (p-value 0,071).

Conclusion: The variables associated with MSDs complaints are age and years of service, while the duration of work and repetitive activities are not associated with MSDs complaints.

 

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Keywords: Musculoakeletal disorders; Bongkar muat; Pelabuhan

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