REAKSI KATALITIS ESTERIFIKASI ASAM OLEAT DAN METANOL MENJADI BIODIESEL DENGAN METODE DISTILASI REAKTIF

*Kusmiyati Kusmiyati  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik, Indonesia
Published: 11 Oct 2008.
Open Access

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Abstract

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. Generally, it is formed by trans etherification reaction of triglycerides in the vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol. In this work, etherification reaction was carried out using oleic acid, methanol and sulphuric acid as a catalyst by reactive distillation method. In order to determine the best conditions for biodiesel production by reactive distillation, the experiments were carried out at different temperature (1000C, 1200C, 1500C and 1800C) using methanol/oleic acid molar ratios (1:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 8:1), catalyst/ oleic acid molar ratios (0.5%wt, 1%wt, 1.5%wt and 2%wt) and reaction times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes). Result show that at temperature 1800C, methanol/oleic acid molar ratio of 8:1, amount of catalyst 1% for 90 minute reaction time gives the highest conversion of oleic acid above 0.9581. Biodiesel product from oleic acid was analyzed by ASTM (American Standard for Testing Material). The results show that the biodiesel produced has the quality required to be a diesel substitute.

 

Biodiesel merupakan salah satu bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil yang diproduksi dari bahan baku minyak nabati dan lemak hewan. Secara umum biodiesel diproduksi melalui reaksi transesterifikasi minyak nabati atau lemak hewan dan alkohol. Pada penelitian ini proses esterifikasi pada pembuatan biodiesel menggunakan bahan baku asam oleat murni (99%), metanol dan katalis asam sulfat dengan metode distilasi reaktif. Distilasi reaktif merupakan penggabungan antara proses reaksi dan proses pemisahan dalam satu unit proses sehingga memungkinkan diperoleh biodiesel dengan kemurnian yang tinggi. Variabel yang dipelajari pada penelitian ini adalah temperatur (1000C, 1200C, 1500C, 1800C), jumlah katalis H2SO4 (0,5% berat, 1% berat, 1,5% berat, 2% berat), rasio metanol : asam oleat dinyatakan 1:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 8:1 (dalam % berat) terhadap konversi asam oleat serta. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, konversi maksimum yang dapat dicapai sebesar 0,9581 pada kondisi reaksi berat katalis H2SO4 1% berat, rasio metanol:asam oleat 8:1 dan suhu reaksi 1800C. Berdasarkan hasil analisa ASTM, biodiesel yang diperoleh memenuhi standar bahan bakar cair dan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar pengganti petroleum diesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, asam oleat, distilasi reaktif

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Last update: 2021-02-24 13:43:28

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