HYDROTHERMAL CARBONIZATION OF BIOMASS WASTE BY USING A STIRRED REACTOR: AN INITIAL EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Copyright (c) 2017 REAKTOR
Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process used to convert wet biomass waste become a coal-like material with higher carbon content called hydrochar. In this study, design and performance test of hydrothermal carbonization prototype reactor is done. Stirred reactor was made of stainless steel 304 with volume of 1 Liter and electric heater as a heating mantle. The HTC reactor was utilized to perform the carbonization of three materials (paper, left-rice, and woodchip) as substrates, in order to study the influence of the temperature conditions on the hydrochar produced. The substrates represent major component in municpal solid waste (MSW). The study showed that chemical and physical properties of several feedstock and hydrochar varied as a function of reaction temperature. HTC is operated in batch at temperatures of 160°, 190° and 220oC, 60 min of reaction time, and 1 MPa initial pressure of nitrogen gas. Three of product were collected from the process with primary material balance. Results showed the products change as the temperature increased. The results suggested that hydrothermal treatment of biomass waste to solid fuel gave high heating value (HHV) with value of 5231.3, 4569.5, and 5422.7 kcal/kg for paper, left-rice, and woodchip respectively after product dried naturally.
Reactor; waste treatment
- Bobleter, O., (1994), Hydrothermal degradation of polymers derived from plants, Progress in Polymer Science, 19(5), pp. 797–841.
- Funke, A., Ziegler, F., (2010), Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass: A summary and discussion of chemical mechanisms for process engineering. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr, 4, pp. 160-177.
- Garrote, G., Dominguez, H., Parajo, J., (1999), Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic materials, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 57(3), pp. 191-202.
- Hwang, I.H., Aoyama, H., Matsuto, T., Nakagishi, T., Matsuo, T., (2012), Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water, Waste Management, 32(3), pp. 410-416.
- Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., Funked, A., Berge, N.D., Neubauer, Y., Titirici, M.M., Fühner, C., Bens, O., Kern, J., Emmerich, K.H., (2011), Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis, Biofuels, 2(1), pp. 71–106.
- Lu, L., Namioka, T., Yoshikawa, K., (2011), Effects of hydrothermal treatment on characteristics and combustion behaviors of municipal solid wastes. Applied Energy, 88, pp. 3659-3664.
- Lu, X., Jordan, B., Berge, N.D., (2012), Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques, Waste Management, 32(7), pp. 1353-1365.
- Lu, X., Pellechia, P., Flora, Joseph R. V., Berge, N.D., (2013), Influence of reaction time and temperature on product formation associated with the hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose. Bioresource Technology, 138, pp. 180-190.
- Lu, X., Flora, J.R.V., Berge, N.D., (2014), Inﬂuence of Process Water Quality on Hydrothermal Carbonization of Cellulose, Bioresource Technology, 154, pp. 229-239.
- Lu, X., Berge, N.D., (2014), Inﬂuence of Feedstock Chemical Composition on Product Formation and Characteristics Derived from The Hydrothermal Carbonization of Mixed Feedstocks. Bioresource Technology, 166, pp. 120–131.
- Sevilla, M., Fuertes, A.B., (2009a), Chemical and structural properties of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides, Chem. Eur. J., 15, pp. 4195-4203.
- Sevilla, M., Fuertes, A.B., (2009b), The production of carbon materials by hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose. Carbon, 47, pp. 2281-2289.
- Titirici, M.M., Thomas, A., Yu, S.-H., Müller, J.-O., Antonietti, M., (2007), A Direct Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons with Bicontinuous Pore Morphology from Crude Plant Material by Hydrothermal Carbonization, Chemistry of Materials, 19(17), pp. 4205-4212.
- Wang, J.Y., He, C., Giannis, A., (2013), Conversion of sewage sludge to clean solid fuel using hydrothermal carbonization: Hydrochar fuel characteristics and combustion behavior, Applied Energy, 111, pp. 257–266.
- Wiedner, K., Naisse, C., Rumpel, C., Pozzi, A., Wieczorek, P., Glaser, B., (2013), Chemical modification of biomass residues during hydrothermal carbonization–What makes the difference, temperature or feedstock?, Organic Geochemistry, 54, pp. 91–100.
- Yuliansyah, A.T., Hirajima, T., Kumagai, S., Sasaki, K., (2010), Production of solid biofuel from agricultural wastes of the palm oil industry by hydrothermal treatment, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1, pp. 395–405.
- http://www.spiraxsarco.com/Resources/Pages/Steam-Tables/saturated-water.aspx (accessed on December 12th, 2015
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Reaktor journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as the journal publisher. Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc., will be allowed only with a written permission from Reaktor journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.