HYDROTHERMAL CARBONIZATION OF BIOMASS WASTE BY USING A STIRRED REACTOR: AN INITIAL EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/reaktor.16.4.212-217
Copyright (c) 2017 REAKTOR

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 02-11-2016
Published: 01-02-2017
Section: Research Article
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process used to convert wet biomass waste become a coal-like material with higher carbon content called hydrochar. In this study, design and performance test of hydrothermal carbonization prototype reactor is done. Stirred reactor was made of stainless steel 304 with volume of 1 Liter and electric heater as a heating mantle. The HTC reactor was utilized to perform the carbonization of three materials (paper, left-rice, and woodchip) as substrates, in order to study the influence of the temperature conditions on the hydrochar produced. The substrates represent major component in municpal solid waste (MSW). The study showed that chemical and physical properties of several feedstock and hydrochar varied as a function of reaction temperature. HTC is operated in batch at temperatures of 160°, 190° and 220oC, 60 min of reaction time, and 1 MPa initial pressure of nitrogen gas. Three of product were collected from the process with primary material balance. Results showed the products change as the temperature increased. The results suggested that hydrothermal treatment of biomass waste to solid fuel gave high heating value (HHV) with value of 5231.3, 4569.5, and 5422.7 kcal/kg for paper, left-rice, and woodchip respectively after product dried naturally.

Keywords

Reactor; waste treatment

  1. Herlian Eriska 
    Loka Penelitian Teknologi Bersih LIPI, Indonesia
  2. Kania Dewi 
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132
  3. Ari Darmawan Pasek 
    Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132
  4. Enri Damanhuri 
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132
  1. Bobleter, O., (1994), Hydrothermal degradation of polymers derived from plants, Progress in Polymer Science, 19(5), pp. 797–841.
  2. Funke, A., Ziegler, F., (2010), Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass: A summary and discussion of chemical mechanisms for process engineering. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr, 4, pp. 160-177.
  3. Garrote, G., Dominguez, H., Parajo, J., (1999), Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic materials, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 57(3), pp. 191-202.
  4. Hwang, I.H., Aoyama, H., Matsuto, T., Nakagishi, T., Matsuo, T., (2012), Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water, Waste Management, 32(3), pp. 410-416.
  5. Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., Funked, A., Berge, N.D., Neubauer, Y., Titirici, M.M., Fühner, C., Bens, O., Kern, J., Emmerich, K.H., (2011), Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis, Biofuels, 2(1), pp. 71–106.
  6. Lu, L., Namioka, T., Yoshikawa, K., (2011), Effects of hydrothermal treatment on characteristics and combustion behaviors of municipal solid wastes. Applied Energy, 88, pp. 3659-3664.
  7. Lu, X., Jordan, B., Berge, N.D., (2012), Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques, Waste Management, 32(7), pp. 1353-1365.
  8. Lu, X., Pellechia, P., Flora, Joseph R. V., Berge, N.D., (2013), Influence of reaction time and temperature on product formation associated with the hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose. Bioresource Technology, 138, pp. 180-190.
  9. Lu, X., Flora, J.R.V., Berge, N.D., (2014), Influence of Process Water Quality on Hydrothermal Carbonization of Cellulose, Bioresource Technology, 154, pp. 229-239.
  10. Lu, X., Berge, N.D., (2014), Influence of Feedstock Chemical Composition on Product Formation and Characteristics Derived from The Hydrothermal Carbonization of Mixed Feedstocks. Bioresource Technology, 166, pp. 120–131.
  11. Sevilla, M., Fuertes, A.B., (2009a), Chemical and structural properties of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides, Chem. Eur. J., 15, pp. 4195-4203.
  12. Sevilla, M., Fuertes, A.B., (2009b), The production of carbon materials by hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose. Carbon, 47, pp. 2281-2289.
  13. Titirici, M.M., Thomas, A., Yu, S.-H., Müller, J.-O., Antonietti, M., (2007), A Direct Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons with Bicontinuous Pore Morphology from Crude Plant Material by Hydrothermal Carbonization, Chemistry of Materials, 19(17), pp. 4205-4212.
  14. Wang, J.Y., He, C., Giannis, A., (2013), Conversion of sewage sludge to clean solid fuel using hydrothermal carbonization: Hydrochar fuel characteristics and combustion behavior, Applied Energy, 111, pp. 257–266.
  15. Wiedner, K., Naisse, C., Rumpel, C., Pozzi, A., Wieczorek, P., Glaser, B., (2013), Chemical modification of biomass residues during hydrothermal carbonization–What makes the difference, temperature or feedstock?, Organic Geochemistry, 54, pp. 91–100.
  16. Yuliansyah, A.T., Hirajima, T., Kumagai, S., Sasaki, K., (2010), Production of solid biofuel from agricultural wastes of the palm oil industry by hydrothermal treatment, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1, pp. 395–405.
  17. http://www.spiraxsarco.com/Resources/Pages/Steam-Tables/saturated-water.aspx (accessed on December 12th, 2015