PENGARUH PROSES PENGERINGAN RIMPANG TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza ROXB) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN DAN KOMPOSISI KURKUMINOID

*Bambang Cahyono -  Laboratorium Kimia Organik, Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedharto, SH, Semarang 50275, Telp. (024)76480824, Indonesia
Muhammad Diah Khoirul Huda -  Laboratorium Kimia Organik, Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedharto, SH, Semarang 50275, Telp. (024)76480824, Indonesia
Leenawaty Limantara -  Ma Chung Research Center for Photosynthetic Pigments Universitas Ma Chung, Malang, 65151, Indonesia
Published: 2 Jun 2011.
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Section: Research Article
Language: EN
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Abstract

EFFECT OF DRYING PROCESSES ON CURCUMINOID CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza ROXB) RHIZOMES. Curcuminoid a yellow coloring agent of turmeric is known to have many benefits in food and medicinal industries. This compound can be isolated by simple extraction from fresh rhizome or symplicia. The research of comparing qualitative and quantitative of curcuminoid in different drying process has not yet been published. Drying methods used in this research were done in an oven at 60°C and under 30-watt electrical lamp at ±30°C. Each method was carried out in time variation of 1, 3, and 5 days. Extraction of curcuminoid was done using ethanol 95% followed by fat reduction process using petroleum ether. Curcuminoid analysis was done by TLC, UV-Visible spectrophotometer and HPLC. The result showed that the water content of all samples was approximately 4.06%-7.76%. TLC analysis identified the presence of two dominant components in the curcuminoid with the Rf values of 0.37 and 0.15. The UV-Visible spectra indicated that simplicia would give more result in curcuminoid than fresh rhizome. There were 4 substances detected in HPLC analysis, they were curcumin 61-67%, demetoxycurcumin 22-26%, bisdemetoxycurcumin 1-3%, and curcuminoid derivative 10-11%. In addition, drying on oven resulted brighter and crispier simplicia than drying under lamp.

 

Kurkuminoid yang merupakan zat utama yang berwarna kuning dalam temulawak telah diketahui memiliki banyak manfaat di bidang kesehatan dan makanan. Bahan ini dapat diisolasi dari bahan segar atau simplisia kering melalui ekstraksi. Riset yang mencoba membandingkan kualitas dan kuantitas kurkuminoid akibat perlakuan panas pada saat pembuatan simplisia hingga sekarang belum pernah dilakukan. Penelitian dimulai dengan pengeringan temulawak segar setelah dirajang pada oven suhu 60°C dan pada pengeringan lampu listrik 30 watt pada suhu ± 30°C. Masing-masing metode dilakukan variasi lama pengeringan 1, 3, 5 hari. Ekstraksi kurkuminoid dilakukan menggunakan etanol 95% dan defatisasi menggunakan petroleum eter, sedangkan analisis kualtatif dan kuantitatif kurkuminoid direalisasikan dengan KLT, spektrofotometer UV-Tampak dan KCKT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan air semua sampel sekitar 4,06%-7,76%. Analisis KLT mengidentifikasi adanya dua komponen dominan dalam kurkuminoid dengan nilai Rf 0,37 dan 0,15. Hasil analisis Spektrofotometri UV-tampak memberikan keenderungan bahwa kurkuminoid dari sampel kering lebih mudah terekstraksi daripada sampel basah. Kromatogram HPLC dapat mendeteksi adanya 4 senyawa yaitu kurkumin 61-67%, demetoksikurkumin 22-26%, bisdemetoksikurkumin 1-3%, dan turunan kurkuminoid 10-11%, urutan prosentase masing-masing komponen tetap sama selama proses pengeringan. Hasil penelitian ini juga telah dapat menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan kondisi operasi pengeringan sangat mempenaruhi penampakan simplisia yang dihasilkan, pengeringan oven memiliki warna lebih cerah dan  lebih meremah daripada pengeringan lampu.

Keywords
curcuma xanthoriza Roxb; curcuminoid; drying; turmeric

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