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STUDI KINETIKA PROSES KIMIA DAN FISIKA PENGHILANGAN GETAH CRUDE PLAM OIL (CPO) DENGAN ASAM FOSFAT

*Yuli Ristianingsih  -  Process System Engineering Research Group, Jurusan Teknik Kimia, FT-UGM , Indonesia
Sutijan Sutijan  -  Process System Engineering Research Group, Jurusan Teknik Kimia, FT-UGM , Indonesia
Arief Budiman  -  Process System Engineering Research Group, Jurusan Teknik Kimia, FT-UGM , Indonesia

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Abstract

KINETIC STUDY OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DEGUMMING OF CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO) USING PHOSPHORIC ACID. The removal of phospholipids (‘degumming’) is the first step in the process of refining crude vegetable oil. The purpose of this research was to study degumming process and its effects to the oil’s quality. CPO used in this research was reacted with phosphoric acid using stirred tank reactor. The batch process was operated for 2 hours in various temperature, phosphoric acid concentration, and agitation speed. The sample was taken every 15 minutes which then analyzed by spectrophotometer at the wave length of 650 nm to measure the gum concentration in the oil. By minimizing sum of squares of errors between experimental and simulation data,  the mass transfer coefficient (Kca), reaction rate constant (k1) and phase equilibrium constants (K) were be calculate. The result showed that the temperature, phosphoric acid concentration and agitation speed were highly affecting in the degumming process. At the range of temperature of 323≤T≤353 K, the higher temperature, the larger reaction rate constant and its relationship can be express as . At the range of Reynolds number of 121.4438 ≤ Re ≤ 630.2521, the effect of agitation speed to mass transfer coefficient (Kca) can be express as Sh=0.09986.Re0.5998.Sc0.3995. From these two equations obtained, one can say that the temperature has effect on the reaction rate and mass transfer. 

 

Abstrak

 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kinetika proses penghilangan getah (degumming) CPO (Crude Palm Oil) yang meliputi kinetika reaksi dan transfer massanya. Parameter yang dipelajari meliputi suhu, kecepatan pengadukan dan konsentrasi asam fosfat. Percobaan dilakukan dengan mereaksikan CPO dan  asam fosfat dalam sebuah reaktor tangki berpengaduk selama 2 jam. Sampel diambil setiap 15 menit kemudian dianalisis dengan spektrofotometer panjang gelombang 650 nm untuk mengetahui konsentrasi gum tersisa pada minyak. Minimasi sum of squares of errors (SSE) antara data percobaan dan hasil perhitungan akan menghasilkan nilai koefisien transfer massa (Kca), konstanta kecepatan reaksi (k1) dan konstanta kesetimbangan cair-cair (K). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu, konsentrasi asam fosfat dan kecepatan pengadukan sangat berpengaruh terhadap proses degumming. Pada kisaran suhu yang dipelajari (323≤T≤353 K), hubungan antara konstanta kecepatan reaksi (k1) dengan suhu dapat dinyatakan dengan persamaan . Pada kisaran pengadukan yang dipelajari (112,4438≤Re≤630,2521), pengaruh kecepatan pengadukan terhadap koefisien perpindahan massa jika dinyatakan dengan bilangan tak berdimensi dapat dinyatakan  dengan persamaan Sh=0,09986.Re0,5998.Sc0,3995. Dari kedua persamaan yang diperoleh terlihat suhu berpengaruh terhadap kecepatan reaksi yang dinyatakan dengan (k1) dan transfer massa yang diwakili dengan Bilangan Schmidt (Sc) dan Reynold (Re).

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Keywords: CPO; degumming; perpindahan massa; reaksi kimia

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Last update: 2021-08-02 09:03:08

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Last update: 2021-08-02 09:03:08

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