TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

*Nyoman Puspa Asri -  Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology Faculty, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111. Telp. (031) 5946240; Fax. (031) 5999282 Chemical EngineeringDepartment, Faculty of Engineering, WR Supratman University, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111, Indonesia
Siti Machmudah -  Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology Faculty, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111. Telp. (031) 5946240; Fax. (031) 5999282, Indonesia
Wahyudiono Wahyudiono -  Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan, Indonesia
Suprapto Suprapto -  Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology Faculty, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111. Telp. (031) 5946240; Fax. (031) 5999282, Indonesia
Kusno Budikarjono -  Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology Faculty, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya, Indonesia 60111. Telp. (031) 5946240; Fax. (031) 5999282, Indonesia
Achmad Roesyadi -  Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology Faculty, Sepuluh Nopember Institute, Indonesia
Mitsuru Sasaki -  Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan, Japan
Motonobu Goto -  Bioelectrics Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan, Japan
Published: 7 Oct 2012.
Open Access
Abstract

A benign process, non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol method was used
to prepare biodiesel from vegetables oil. The experiment was carried out in batch type reactor (8.8 ml
capacity, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN) by changing the reaction condition such as reaction
temperature (from 210°C in subcritical condition to 290°C in supercritical state with of 20°C
interval), molar ratio oil to methanol (1:12-1:42) and time of reaction (10-90 min). The fatty acid
methyl esters (FAMEs) content was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID).
Such analysis can be used to determine the biodiesel yield of the transesterification. The results
showed that the yield of biodiesel increases gradually with the increasing of reaction time at
subcritical state (210-230oC). However, it was drastically increased at the supercritical state (270-
290oC). Similarly, the yield of biodiesel sharply increased with increasing the ratio molar of soy oilmethanol
up to 1:24. The maximum yield 86 and 88% were achieved at 290oC, 90 min of reaction time
and molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:24, for soybean oil and palm oil, respectively.

Proses transesterifikasi non katalitik dengan metanol sub dan superkritis,
merupakan proses yang ramah lingkungan digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak nabati.
Percobaan dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor batch (kapasitas 8,8 ml, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN),
dengan variabel kondisi reaksi seperti temperatur reaksi (dari kondisi subkritis 210°C-kondisi
superkritis 290°C dengan interval 20°C), rasio molar minyak-metanol (1:12-1:42) dan waktu reaksi
(10-90 menit). Kandungan metil ester asam lemak (FAME) dianalisis dengan kromatografi gas
dengan detektor FID (GC-FID). Hasil Analisis tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menentukan yield
biodiesel dari proses transesterifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkat
secara perlahan dengan meningkatnya waktu reaksi pada keadaan subkritis (210-230oC). Namun,
yield biodiesel meningkat secara drastis pada kondisi superkritis (270-290oC). Demikian pula halnya
dengan rasio molar minyak kedelai-metanol, dimana hasil biodiesel meningkat tajam dengan
meningkatnya rasio molar minyak-metanol hingga 1:24. Yield maksimum dicapai pada 290oC, waktu
reaksi 90 menit dan rasio molar minyak terhadap metanol 1:24, yaitu sebesar 86% untuk minyak
kedelai dan 88% untuk minyak sawit.

 

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Keywords
free catalyst; sub-and supercritical methanol; transesterification; vegetables oil

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Section: Research Article
Language: EN
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