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SELEKTIF BAKTERI YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN KEMATIAN IKAN NILA (Oreochromus niloticus) DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG (Bacterial Selective Associated with Tilapia (Oreochromus niloticus) Mortality in Magelang Regency )

*Sarjito Sarjito scopus  -  Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Monica Nanda  -  Departemen Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Sulisyaningrum Sulisyaningrum  -  Dinas Peternakan dan Perikanan Kabupaten Magelang, Indonesia
Alfabetian Harjuno Condro Haditomo  -  Division of Marine Life Science, Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University, Japan
Desrina Desrina  -  Departemen Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Slamet Budi Prayitno  -  Departemen Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

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Abstract

Kematian ikan nila  yang terjadi karena wabah penyakit  di Kabupaten Magelang mencapai kisaran 40 - 75 % pada bulan Juni – September 2019, mengakibatkan kerugian ekonomi bagi pembudidaya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji gejala klinis, dan bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan kematian ikan nila tersebut.  Metode studi kasus konfirmatori dengan purposive sampling diaplikasikan. Duapuluh tiga ikan nila sakit panjang 8,87 ± 0,61cm diperoleh dari kolam pembesaran di Desa Keji, Kecamatan Muntilan dan Desa Pabelan, Kecamatan Mungkid, Kabupaten Magelang, sebagai sampel.  Isolasi bakteri dilakukan dengan metode gores pada media TSA dan GSP. Hasil isolasi dari keduapuluh tiga ikan sampel diperoleh 43 isolat bakteri murni. Berdasarkan karakter morfologi, media isolasi, bentuk dan warna dan karakter serta asal koloni, dari 44 isolat bakteri tersebut terseleksi 6 isolat (SN03, SN26,  SN48, SN51 , SN66 dan SN77)  untuk dilakukan uji selanjutnya yaitu uji postulat Koch dan karakterisasi secara biokimia dengan API KIT Vitek 2 Compact.  Gejala klinis yang terdeteksi pada ikan sampel dan ikan uji adalah pergerakan ikan pasif dan berenang di permukaan air, sirip geripis, luka pada tubuh, insang pucat, bercak merah pada tubuh, exopthalmia dan produksi lendir berlebih serta organ dalam yang memucat. Uji postulat Koch diperoleh bahwa keenam isolat bakteri menyebabkan ikan uji sakit dengan mortalitas berkisar antara 46,6 - 96,6%.  Hasil karakterisasi diperoleh bahwa keenam selektif bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan kematian ikan nila di kabupaten Magelang adalah Aeromonas hydrophila (SN 03), Streptococcus agalactiae (SN 26), Aeromonas sobria (SN 48), Pseudomonas putida (SN 51), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (SN 66) dan Aeromonas caviae (SN 77).

 

Mortality of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) due to disease outbreaks in Magelang Regency reached 40 - 75% from June - November 2019, resulting in economic losses of farmer. This study aims were to determine the clinical symptoms and bacteria associated with tilapia mortality.  A confirmatory case study method with purposive sampling was applied. Twenty-three sick tilapia fish with a length of 8.87 ± 0.61 cm were obtained from grow out  pond in Keji Village, Muntilan District and Pabelan Village, Mungkid District, Magelang District, as samples. Bacteria isolation was carried out by scratch method on TSA and GSP media. The isolation from twenty-three fish samples resulted on 43 bacterial isolates.  Based on morphological characters, isolation media, shape and color as well as sources and character colony of 44 isolates, they were selected into 6 isolates (SN03, SN26, SN48, SN51, SN66 and SN77) for further testing, i.e: the Koch postulate test and biochemical characterization using Vitek 2 Compact. API KIT.  The clinical symptoms detected in the samples and test fish were fish that moved passively and swam on the surface of the water, wrinkled fins, wounds on the body, pale gills, red spots on the body, exopthalmia and excess mucus production and pale internal organs.  The Koch postulate test result showed that the six selected bacterial caused the test fish to be sick with a mortality ranging from 46.6-96.6%. The characterization of the selective bacteria associated with tilapia mortality in Magelang Regency, namely:  SN03, SN26, SN48, SN51, SN66 and SN77 were Aeromonas hydrophila (97%); Streptococcus agalactiae (98%), Aeromonas sobria (96%) Pseudomonas putida (96%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (96%) and Aeromonas caviae (98%) respectively. 

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Keywords: aeromonas; pseudomonas; streptococcus; kematian; ikan nila

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