Kinetika detoksifikasi umbi gadung (dioscorea hispida dennst.) secara fermentasi dengan kapang mucor racemosus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/reaktor.17.2.81-88
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Article Info
Submitted: 17-05-2017
Published: 07-06-2017
Section: Research Article

Abstract

 

THE KINETICS OF GADUNG (Dioscorea hispida dennst.) TUBER DETOXIFICATION VIA FUNGAL FERMENTATION USING Mucor racemosus. Bitter yam (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) is one of carbohydrate sources used as staple food commonly found in Indonesian dry-land. However, this tuber has been underutilized due to the presence of an antinutrition compound, namely cyanogenic glucosides. Removal of cyanides from foodstuffs can be done either by physical, chemical or biological methods. In this study, the effect of time on the detoxification of gadung tuber chips from cyanides via fermentation using Mucor racemosus and its kinetics were investigated. Gadung chip samples were withdrawn from the fermentation system at every 24 hours interval for biomass and cyanides contents analysis. It was clear that the cyanides content decreased as the fermentation went by. Safely consumed gadung tuber chips were obtained from fermentation of the chips for 120 hours from which cyanides content as low as 49.41 mg/kg was achieved. The logistic equation successfully described the growth rate of Mucor racemosus under studied condition. The specific growth rate of Mucor racemosus in gadung chips was found to be 0.0297/hr or about a half of specific growth rate of that mold when grown in the readily consumed yeast-pepton-glucose (YPG) media.

 

Keywords: fermentation; yam; monod; Mucor racemosus; cyanogen

 

 

Abstrak

 

Umbi gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) merupakan salah satu sumber karbohidrat yang digunakan sebagai makanan pokok yang biasa ditemukan di lahan kering di wilayah Indonesia. Namun, umbi ini kurang dimanfaatkan karena adanya senyawa antinutrisi, yaitu cyanogenic glucosides. Penghilangan senyawa sianida dari bahan makanan dapat dilakukan baik dengan metode fisik, kimia atau biologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh waktu pada detoksifikasi irisan umbi gadung dari senyawa sianida melalui fermentasi dengan menggunakan kapang Mucor racemosus dan kinetikanya. Cuplikan irisan umbi gadung diambil dari sistem fermentasi pada setiap jeda waktu 24 jam untuk dianalisis kadar biomassa dan sianidanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan sianida menurun seiring dengan bertambahnya waktu fermentasi. Irisan umbi gadung yang aman dikonsumsi dapat diperoleh dari fermentasi irisan ubi gadung selama 120 jam dengan kandungan sianida serendah 49,41 mg/kg. Persamaan logistik berhasil menggambarkan tingkat pertumbuhan kapang Mucor racemosus dengan baik. Tingkat pertumbuhan spesifik dari Mucor racemosus pada irisan umbi gadung adalah 0,0297/jam atau sekitar setengah dari laju pertumbuhan spesifik jamur tersebut saat dibudidayakan pada media yang siap dikonsumsi, seperti ragi-pepton-glukosa (YPG).

 

Kata kunci: fermentasi; gadung; monod; Mucor racemosus; sianogen 

Keywords

fermentasi; gadung; monod; Mucor racemosus; sianogen

  1. marissa widiyanti 
    Program Studi Magister Teknik Kimia, Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang Semarang 50275 Telp./Fax. (024)7460058/(024)76480675
  2. Andri Cahyo Kumoro 
    Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang Semarang 50275 Telp./Fax. (024)7460058/(024)76480675

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