Scleractinian Coral Health Status of Padang Shelf Reef System, West Sumatera, Indonesia (Status Kesehatan Karang Skleraktinian pada Sistem Terumbu Karang Pesisir di Perairan Padang, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia)

*Ofri Johan  -  Research Institute for Ornamental Fish Aquaculture and Development., Indonesia
Amran R Syam  -  Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation., Indonesia
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Abstract

Prevalensi penyakit karang sebelumnya belum dilaporkan di perairan Padang, Sumatera Barat. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan prevalensi penyakit karang pada lokasi yang dekat dengan pantai, pertengahan dan lokasi terluar, dimana lokasi tersebut merupakan lokasi pemantauan yang berkesinambungan sejak tahun 1994 untuk data kondisi karang. Metode pengamatan yang digunakan adalah metode transek sabuk dengan ukuran 1 m kekiri dan kekanan transek garis yang memiliki panjang 30 m dan 3 ulangan. Dua jenis penyakit dan dua indicator stress karang teramati pada penelitian ini. Penyakit karang sabuk hitam (Black Band Disease, BBD) yang banyak ditemukan di Pulau Pandan (1.3%) pada kedalam 5 m. Penyakit White Syndrome (WS) terjadi di Gosong Air (0.3%). Beberapa koloni karang Montipora sp. dan Pocillopora verrucosa mengalami pemutihan di Pulau Pieh (2.1%).Focal bleaching ditemukan pada karang Galaxea sp. dan Goniastrea sp. di Gosong Gabuo (2.5%) dan pada karang Pocillopora verrucosa di Gosong Sipakal (3.9%). Penyakit BBD menginfeksi karang Montipora sp. dan Porites sp. Penyakit WS hanya menginfeksi karang Montipora sp. Karang Montipora sp, Pocillopora sp dan Porites sp banyak dan umum ditemukan di perairan Padang. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa infeksi penyakit karang masih tergolong rendah dan secara alamiah bisa terjadi sehingga tidak menghalangi proses pemulihan kondisi karang yang saat ini terjadi dan secara umum pada status kesehatan karang.

Kata kunci: coral disease, black band disease, white syndrome, Sumatera Barat

The prevalence of coral disease was previously unreported on the reefs of the Padang Shelf Reef System, West Sumatra and is relatively uncommon. The objective of this study was to get coral disease prevalence of each site which located at inshore, mid-shelf reef and off-shore reefs. The research was carried out by using belt transect method with 1 m left and right of tape as long 30 m with 3 replications. Two kinds of coral disease and two indicators of stressed coral were observed. While relatively infrequent, Black Band Disease was most common (1.3%) occurring on Pandan Island at 5m. White Syndrome occurred at Air patch reef (0.3%). A few bleached colonies of Montipora sp. and Pocillopora verrucosa were observed on Pieh Island reef (2.1%). Focal bleaching was observed on Galaxea sp. and Goniastrea sp. at Gabuo patch reefs (2.5%) and on Pocillopora verrucosa at Sipakal patch reef (3.9%). BBD infected both Montipora sp. and Porites sp. WS only infected on Montipora sp. Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites were the most common genera observed on the reefs. It suggests that coral disease infection was classified as a minor and it will not hamper coral recovery processes and coral health status in Padang Waters, West Sumatera.

Keywords: coral disease, black band disease, white syndrome, West Sumatera

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