Adaptation of VSC-HVDC Connected DFIG Based Offshore Wind Farm to Grid Codes: A Comparative Analysis
Lack of synchronism between VSC-HVDC (Voltage Source Converter - High Voltage Direct Current) connected offshore wind farm and onshore grid leads to immunity of wind turbines to grid contingencies. Focusing on DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) based wind farms; this paper has presented a univalent control structure based on inertial and primary frequency response in which DC link voltage is utilized as synchronization interface. Based on the presented structure, four approaches based on the communication system, frequency, voltage and combined frequency and voltage modulation are utilized and compared to inform the onshore grid status to individual wind turbines. Considering Kondurs two area power system, results have revealed that all four approaches have similar ability (with negligible error) in offering inertial and primary frequency response to improve slow network oscillations. On the other hand, voltage and combined frequency and voltage modulation approaches have the ability to satisfy Fault Ride Through (FRT) requirements thanks to superior dynamics. However, communication and frequency modulation approaches lose that ability as communication and frequency measurement delays increase respectively. It has been concluded that combined frequency and voltage modulation, as the superior approach, has advantages like minimum FRT DC voltage profile increase and deviation from operating point after the fault, the minimum imposition of electrical and mechanical stress on DFIG and preservation of prevalent control structure thanks to appropriate dissociation between slow and fast dynamics.
©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Article History: Received Dec 8th 2017; Received in revised form July 16th 2018; Accepted December 15th 2018; Available online
How to Cite This Article: Yazdi, S.S.H., Milimonfared, J. and Fathi, S.H. (2019). Adaptation of VSC-HVDC Connected DFIG Based Offshore Wind Farm to Grid Codes: A Comparative Analysis. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 8(1), 91-101.
- Network Code on Requirements for Grid Connection Applicable to all Generators (RfG), in: Electricity, E.N.o.T.S.O.f. (Ed.). European Union Official Journal
- Adeuyi, O.D., Cheah-Mane, M., Liang, J., Livermore, L., Mu, Q., 2015. Preventing DC over-voltage in multi-terminal HVDC transmission. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems 1, 86-94.
- Association, T.E.W.E., 2016. Wind in power, 2015 European statistics, in: Pineda, I. (Ed.).
- Chaudhary, S.K., Teodorescu, R., Rodriguez, P., Kj, P.C., x00E, 2009. Chopper controlled resistors in VSC-HVDC transmission for WPP with full-scale converters, 2009 IEEE PES/IAS Conference on Sustainable Alternative Energy (SAE), pp. 1-8.
- D´ıaz-Gonz´alez, F., Sumper, A., Gomis-Bellmunt, O., 2016. Energy Storage in Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Energinet, 2014. Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP: summary of the status year.
- Engelhardt, S., Erlich, I., Feltes, C., Kretschmann, J., Shewarega, F., 2011. Reactive Power Capability of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly Fed Induction Generators. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 26, 364-372.
- Erlich, I., Feltes, C., Shewarega, F., 2014. Enhanced Voltage Drop Control by VSC-HVDC Systems for Improving Wind Farm Fault Ridethrough Capability. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 29, 378-385.
- Feltes, C., Wrede, H., Koch, F.W., Erlich, I., 2009. Enhanced Fault Ride-Through Method for Wind Farms Connected to the Grid Through VSC-Based HVDC Transmission. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 24, 1537-1546.
- Foster, S., Xu, L., Fox, B., 2008. Control of an LCC HVDC system for connecting large offshore wind farms with special consideration of grid fault, Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, pp. 1-8.
- García, C.A., Fernández, L.M., Jurado, F., 2015. Evaluating reduced models of aggregated different doubly fed induction generator wind turbines for transient stabilities studies. Wind Energy 18, 133–152.
- Hu, J., Nian, H., Xu, H., He, Y., 2011. Dynamic Modeling and Improved Control of DFIG Under Distorted Grid Voltage Conditions. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 26, 163-175.
- Hu, X., Liang, J., Rogers, D.J., Li, Y., 2013. Power Flow and Power Reduction Control Using Variable Frequency of Offshore AC Grids. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28, 3897-3905.
- Jonkman, J., Butterfield, S., Musial, W., Scott, G., 2009. Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development in: Energy, U.S.D.o. (Ed.). National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
- Junyent-Ferr, A., Pipelzadeh, Y., Green, T.C., 2015. Blending HVDC-Link Energy Storage and Offshore Wind Turbine Inertia for Fast Frequency Response. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 6, 1059-1066.
- Klein, M., Rogers, G.J., Kundur, P., 1991. A fundamental study of inter-area oscillations in power systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 6, 914-921.
- Lee, J., Muljadi, E., Srensen, P., Kang, Y.C., 2016. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 7, 279-288.
- Liu, H., Chen, Z., 2015. Contribution of VSC-HVDC to Frequency Regulation of Power Systems With Offshore Wind Generation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 30, 918-926.
- Lopez, J., Sanchis, P., Roboam, X., Marroyo, L., 2007. Dynamic Behavior of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator During Three-Phase Voltage Dips. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 22, 709-717.
- Lu, H., Yuan, Z., Wei, L., Kerkman, R., Lukaszewski, R., Ahmed, A.M., 2013. Double Fed Iduction Generator (DFIG) Converter And Method For Improved Grid Fault Ridethrough, in: Office, U.S.P.a.T. (Ed.). Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc., US.
- Miao, Z., Fan, L., Osborn, D., Yuvarajan, S., 2010. Wind Farms With HVdc Delivery in Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Control. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 25, 1171-1178.
- Miller, N.W., Price, W.W., Sanchez-Gasca, J.J., 2003. Dynamic Modeling of GE 1.5 and 3.6 Wind Turbine-Generators. General Electric International, Inc., U.S.A.
- Mohseni, M., Islam, S.M., 2012. Review of international grid codes for wind power integration: Diversity, technology and a case for global standard. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, 3876-3890.
- Nanou, S., Papathanassiou, S., 2015. Evaluation of a communication-based fault ride-through scheme for offshore wind farms connected through high-voltage DC links based on voltage source converter. IET Renewable Power Generation 9, 882-891.
- Nanou, S.I., Papathanassiou, S.A., 2016. Grid Code Compatibility of VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Turbines Employing Power Synchronization Control. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems PP, 1-9.
- Nanou, S.I., Patsakis, G.N., Papathanassiou, S.A., 2015. Assessment of communication-independent grid code compatibility solutions for VSC–HVDC connected offshore wind farms. Electric Power Systems Research 121, 38-51.
- Nasiri, M., Milimonfared, J., Fathi, S.H., 2015. A review of low-voltage ride-through enhancement methods for permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind turbines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47, 399-415.
- Østergaard, K.Z., Brath, P., Stoustrup, J., 2007. Etimation of Effective Wind Speed. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 75.
- Phulpin, Y., 2012. Communication-Free Inertia and Frequency Control for Wind Generators Connected by an HVDC-Link. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27, 1136-1137.
- Pipelzadeh, Y., Chaudhuri, B., Green, T.C., 2012. Inertial response from remote offshore wind farms connected through VSC-HVDC links: A Communication-less scheme, 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1-6.
- Ramtharan, G., Arulampalam, A., Ekanayake, J.B., Hughes, F.M., Jenkins, N., 2009. Fault ride through of fully rated converter wind turbines with AC and DC transmission. IET Renewable Power Generation 3, 426-438.
- Red Eléctrica de España, S.A.U., 2015. The Spanish Electricity System: Preliminary report
- Sanz, I.M., Chaudhuri, B., Strbac, G., 2015. Inertial Response From Offshore Wind Farms Connected Through DC Grids. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 30, 1518-1527.
- Schneider, D., Küster, K.K., Siefert, M., Fraunhofer, M.S., 2013. Available Active Power Estimation for the Provision of Control Reserve by Wind Turbines, European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition (EWEC), Vienna, Austria.
- Shoulaie, A., Jafarabadi, S.E., 2005. Analysis, modelling and simulation of HVDC transmission line internal overvoltages Journal of Iranian Association of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1, 11-22.
- Silva, B., Moreira, C.L., Leite, H., Pe, J.A., x00E, as, L., 2014. Control Strategies for AC Fault Ride Through in Multiterminal HVDC Grids. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 29, 395-405.
- Silva, B., Moreira, C.L., Seca, L., Phulpin, Y., Lopes, J.A.P., 2012. Provision of Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Services Using Offshore Multiterminal HVDC Networks. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 3, 800-808.
- Tsili, M., Papathanassiou, S., 2009. A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms. IET Renewable Power Generation 3, 308-332.
- Xu, L., Yao, L., Sasse, C., 2007. Grid Integration of Large DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using VSC Transmission. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 22, 976-984.
- Yang, L., Xu, Z., Ostergaard, J., Dong, Z.Y., Wong, K.P., 2012. Advanced Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Turbines for Power System Fault Ride Through. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27, 713-722.
- Yazdi, S.S.H., Fathi, S.H., Monfared, J.M., Amiri, E.M., 2014. Optimal operation of multi terminal HVDC links connected to offshore wind farms, Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2014 11th International Conference on, pp. 1-6.
- Zhang, X., Wu, Z., Hu, M., Li, X., Lv, G., 2015. Coordinated Control Strategies of VSC-HVDC-Based Wind Power Systems for Low Voltage Ride Through. Energies 8, 7224-7242.
- Zhang, Z.S., Sun, Y.Z., Lin, J., Li, G.J., 2012. Coordinated frequency regulation by doubly fed induction generator-based wind power plants. IET Renewable Power Generation 6, 38-47.
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.