Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperature and Molar Ratio
Trimethylolpropane esters were synthesized by transesterification of calophyllum methyl esters and trimethylolpropane using a calcium oxide as the catalyst. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions (temperature: 130 0C, reaction time: 5 h, reactant molar ratio: 3.9:1, catalyst amount 3%w/w, and formed trimethylolpropane ester of 79.0% were obtained. The basic physicochemical properties of the trimethylolpropane esters were the following : kinematic viscosities of 56.40 cSt and 8.8 cSt at 40 0C and 100 0C, viscosity index 193, flash point 218 0C and pour point -3 0C. So Methyl esters of fatty acids of would callophylum methyl ester is good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils.
- Castro, W., Perez, J.M., Erhan, S.Z., Caputo, F. (2006) A study of the oxidation and wear properties of vegetable oils: soybean oil without additives. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 47–52.
- Doll, K.M., Sharma, B.K., Erhan, S.Z. (2007) Synthesis of branched methyl hydroxyl strearates including an ester from bio-based levulinic acid. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46, 3513–3519.
- Lathi, S.P. & Mattiason, B. (2006) Green Approach for the Preparation of Biodegradable Lubricant Base Stock from Epoxidized Vegetable Oil. Journal of Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 69: 207-212.
- Leung, D.Y.C., Wu, X., Leung, M.K.H. (2010) A review of biodiesel production usingcatalyzed transesterification. Appl. Energy 87, 1083–1095.
- Gryglewicz, S., Piechocki, W., Gryglewicz, G. (2003) Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats. Bioresour. Technol. 87, 35–39.
- Phani K. Sripada, Rajesh V. Sharma, Ajay K. Dalai. (2013) Comparative study of tribological properties oftrimethylolpropane-based biolubricants derived frommethyl oleate and canola biodiesel, Journal Industrial Crops and Products 50, 95– 103
- Salimon J, N. Salih, E. Yousif (2010) Improvement of pour point and oxidative stability of synthetic ester basestocks for biolubricant applications, Arab. J. Chem. 5, 193–200.
- Metzger, J.O. (2009) Fats and oils as renewable feedstock for chemistry. Eur. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111, 865–876.
- Nagendramma, P., Kaul, S. (2012) Development of ecofriendly/biodegradable lubri-cants: an overview. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16, 764–774.
- Uosukainen, E., Linko, Y.-Y., Lamsa, M., Tervakangas, T., Linko, P. (1998) Transesterifi-cation of trimethylolpropane and rapeseed oil methyl ester to environmentallyacceptable lubricants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1557–1563.
- Willing A. (2001) Lubricants based on renewable resources – an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products. Chemosphere ;43:89–98.
- Robiah, Y., Fakhru’l-Razi, A., Ooi, T.L., Iyuke, S.E dan Idris, A. 2003a. Development of Optimum Synthesis Method for Transesterification of Palm Oil Methyl Esters and Trimethylolpropane to Environmentally Acceptable Palm Oil- Based Lubricant. Journal of Oil Palm Research 15 (2): 35-41.
- Robiah, Y., Fakhru’l-Razi, A., Ooi, T.L., Iyuke, S.E dan Idris, A. 2003b. Preparation and Characterization of Trimethylolpropane Esters from Palm Kernel Methyl Esters. Journal of Oil Palm Research 15 (2): 42-49
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.