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Public Participation of Renewable Energy (PPRED) Model in Malaysia: An Instrument Development

1Faculty of Business Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

2Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia

3Institute of Energy Policy and Research, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

Received: 20 Aug 2020; Revised: 9 Oct 2020; Accepted: 30 Oct 2020; Published: 1 Feb 2021; Available online: 4 Nov 2020.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 The authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
Lack of an established measuring instrument for public participation towards renewable energy (RE) development has become a crucial concern for the researchers. Therefore, this research aims to develop and validate the instruments that measure public participation towards renewable energy development (PPRED) in Malaysia. This study incorporates degree of knowledge on RE (KRE), environmental concern (EC), public awareness on RE (ARE), attitude towards RE usage (AURE), and willingness to adopt RE technology (WTA) in the PPRED model, with an aim to predict public willingness to pay (WTP) for energy generated from RE sources. Using data of 172 usable responses, this study conducts an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to analyse the factor structures. In addition to this, using data from 154 usable responses from a second sample frame, this study also conducts confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the unidimensionality of the measurement model. Correlations are used to measure discriminant and convergent validation of the items whereas Cronbach’s Alpha is used to measure internal consistency among different items. Specifically, EFA is used for variable extraction and CFA is used to test dimensionality, validity, and reliability of the PPRED model. The results proved validation of the PPRED model, indicating that all instruments included are reliable and valid to be used in the research. This study is also pertinent to initiate targeted campaigns and public education policies to improve awareness among Malaysians relating to renewable energy development

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Keywords: Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Renewable Energy; Willingness to pay

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