skip to main content

Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

1Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, INDONESIA, Indonesia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, INDONESIA, Indonesia

3Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology,, Indonesia

Published: 15 Jul 2016.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Renewable Energy Development

Citation Format:

Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation.


Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online

How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016) Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2), 95-100.


Fulltext View|Download

Article Metrics:

  1. Byrne, C.E. & Nagle, D.C. (1997) Carbonization of Wood for Advanced Materials Applications. Carbon, 35(2), 259-266
  2. Cahyono, T.D., Coto, Z. & Febrianto, F. (2008) Thermophisic Aspect of Wood Utilization as Substitution Fuel at Cement Factory. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan, 1(1), 45-53
  3. Demirbas, A. (2005) Potential Applications of Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass Combustion Problems in Boiler Power Systems and Combustion Related Environmental Issues. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 31, 171-192
  4. Engler, B., Schoenherr, S., Zhong, Z. & Becker, G. (2012) Suitability of Bamboo as An Energy Resource: Analysis of Bamboo Combustion Values Dependent on The Culm’s Age. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 23(2), 114-121
  5. Jenkins, B.M., Baxter, L.L., Miles J.T.R. & Miles, T.R. (1998) Combustion Properties of Biomass. Fuel Processing Technology, 54, 17-46
  6. Kleinhenz, V., Midmore, D.J. (2001) Aspects of bamboo agronomy. Advances in Agronomy, 74, 99-145
  7. Konsomboon, S., Pipatmanomai, S., Madhiyanon, T. & Tia, S. (2011) Effect of Kaolin Addition on Ash Characteristics of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Upon Combustion. Applied Energy, 88, 298-305
  8. Kumar, R. & Chandrashekar, N. (2014) Fuel Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Some Promising Bamboo Species in India. Journal of Forestry Research, 25(2), 471-476
  9. Llorente, M.J.F., Arocas, P.D., Nebot, L.G. & Garcia, J.E.C. (2008) The Effect of The Addition of Chemical Materials on The Sintering of Biomass Ash. Fuel, 87(12), 2651-2658
  10. McKendry, P. (2002a) Energy Production from Biomass (Part 1): Overview of Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83, 37-46
  11. McKendry, P. (2002b) Energy Production from Biomass (Part 2): Conversion Technologies. Bioresource Technology, 83, 47-54
  12. Rajamma, R., Ball, R.J., Tarelho, L.A.C., Allen, G.C., Labrincha, J.A. & Ferreira, V.M. (2009) Characterisation and use of biomass fly ash in cement-based materials. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172, 1049-1060
  13. Scurlock, J.M.O., Dayton, D.C. & Hames, B. (2000) Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource? Biomass and Bioenergy, 19, 229-244
  14. Vassilev, S.V., Baxter, D., Andersen, L.K., & Vassileva, C.G. (2013) An Overview of The Composition and Application of Biomass Ash. Part 2. Potential Utilisation, Technological and Ecological Advantages and Challenges. Fuel, 105, 19–39
  15. Yudodibroto, H. (1987) Bamboo Research in Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, Hangzhou, R.R.C., Rao, A.N., G. Dhanarajan, G., Sastry, C.B., eds., IDRC, 33-44

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.