Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review

*W.D.P Rengga  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia,, Indonesia
M. Sudibandriyo  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia,, Indonesia
M Nasikin  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia,, Indonesia
Published: 30 Oct 2012.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2012 International Journal of Renewable Energy Development

Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Original Research Article
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 2035 1369

Gas storage is a technology developed with an adsorptive storage method, in which gases are stored as adsorbed components on the certain adsorbent. Formaldehyde is one of the major indoor gaseous pollutants. Depending on its concentration, formaldehyde may cause minor disorder symptoms to a serious injury. Some of the successful applications of technology for the removal of formaldehyde have been reported. However, this paper presents an overview of several studies on the elimination of formaldehyde that has been done by adsorption method because of its simplicity. The adsorption method does not require high energy and the adsorbent used can be obtained from inexpensive materials. Most researchers used activated carbon as an adsorbent for removal of formaldehyde because of its high adsorption capacity. Activated carbons can be produced from many materials such as coals, woods, or agricultural waste. Some of them were prepared by specific activation methods to improve the surface area. Some researchers also used modified activated carbon by adding specific additive to improve its performance in attracting formaldehyde molecules. Proposed modification methods on activation and additive impregnated carbon are thus discussed in this paper for future development and improvement of formaldehyde adsorption on activated carbon. Specifically, a waste agricultural product is chosen for activated carbon raw material because it is renewable and gives an added value to the materials. The study indicates that the performance of the adsorption of formaldehyde might be improved by using modified activated carbon. Bamboo seems to be the most appropriate raw materials to produce activated carbon combined with applying chemical activation method and addition of metal oxidative catalysts such as Cu or Ag in nano size particles. Bamboo activated carbon can be developed in addition to the capture of formaldehyde as well as the storage of adsorptive hydrogen gas that supports renewable energy.


Keywords: adsorption; bamboo; formaldehyde; modified activated carbon; nano size particles

Article Metrics:

  1. Boonamnuayvitaya V, Sae-ung S, Tathapanichakoon W (2005) Preparation of Activated Carbon from Coffee residue for the Adsorption of Formaldehyde. Separation and Purification Technology Vol: 42: 159-168.
  2. Matsuo Y, Nishino Y, Fukutsuka T, Sugie Y (2008) Removal of Formaldehyde from Gas Phase by Silylated Graphite Oxide Containing Amino Group. Carbon Vol. 46: 1159-74.
  3. Shi QW, Jia DY, Geng SB (2005) Prime Criminal of Indoor Air Pollution-Formaldehyde. China Journal Contamination Control Air Condition Technology Vol. 2: 38-44.
  4. MSDS Material Data Safety Sheet (2000) Formaldehyde, Canada: Mallinckrote Baker, Inc
  5. WHO (2010) World Health Organization Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants, World Health Organization Regional Office of Europe.
  6. Liang W, Li J, & Jin Y (2012) Photo-catalytic Degradation of Gaseous Formaldehyde by TiO2/UV, Ag/TiO2/UV and Ce/TiO2/UV. Building and Environment, 51: 345-350.
  7. Liang W, Li J, Li J-X, Zhu T, & Jin Y-Q (2010). Formaldehyde Removal from Gas Streams by Means of NaNO2 Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 175: 1090-95.
  8. Fan X, Zhu T, Sun Y, & Yan X (2011) The Roles of Various Plasma Species in The Plasma and Plasma-Catalytic Removal of low-concentration Formaldehyde in Air. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 196: 380-385.
  9. Wang X, Liang X, Wang Y, Wang X, Liu M, Yin D, Xia S, Zhao J, & Zhang Y (2011) Adsorption of Copper (II) onto Activated Carbons from Sewage Sludge by Microwave-induced Phosphoric Acid and Zinc Chloride Activation. Desalination, 278: 231–237.
  10. Zhao D-Z, Li X-S, Shi C, Fan H-Y, & Zhu A-M (2011) Low-Concentration Formaldehyde Removal from Air Using A Cycled Storage-discharge (CSD) Plasma Catalytic Process. Chemical Engineering Science, 66: 3922-29.
  11. Sigawi S, Smutok O, Demkiv O, Zakalska O, Gayda G, Nitzan Y, Nisnevitch M, & Gonchar M (2011) Immobilized Formaldehyde-Metabolizing Enzymes from Hansenula polymorpha for Removal and Control of Airborne Formaldehyde. Journal of Biotechnology, 153: 138-144.
  12. Miyawaki J, Lee G-H, Yeh J, Shiratori N, Shimohara T, Mochida I, & Yoon S-H (2011) Development of Carbon-Supported Hybrid Catalyst for Clean Removal of Formaldehyde Indoors. Catalysis Today, 185: 278-283.
  13. Lu Y, Wang D, Ma C, & Yang H (2010) The Effect of Activated Carbon Adsorption on The Photocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde. Building and Environment, 45: 615-621.
  14. Rong H, Ryu Z, Zheng J, & Zhang Y (2002) Effect of Air Oxidation of Rayon-based activated Carbon Fibers on Adsorption Behavior for Formaldehyde. Carbon, 40: 2291-300.
  15. Rong H, Ryu Z, Zheng J, & Zhang Y (2003) Influence of Heat Treatment of Rayon-based activated Carbon Fibers on The Adsorption of Formaldehyde. Journal of Colloid and Interface, 261: 207-212.
  16. Kumagai S, Sasaki K, Shimizu Y, & Takeda K (2008) Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Adsorption Properties of Heat-Treated Rice Husk. Separation and Purification Technology, 61: 398-403.
  17. Pei J, & Zhang JS (2011) On Performance and Mechanisms of Formaldehyde Removal by Chemi-sorbents. Chemical Engineering Journal, 167: 59-66.
  18. Wen Q, Li C, Cai Z, Zhang W, Gao H, Chen L, Zeng G, Shu X, & Zhao Y (2011) Study on Activated Carbon Derived from Sewage Sludge for Adsorption of Gaseous Formaldehyde. Bioresource Technology, 102: 942-947.
  19. Tanada S, Kawasaki N, Nakamura T, Araki M, & Isomura M (1999) Removal of Formaldehyde by Activated Carbons Containing Amino Groups. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 214: 106-108.
  20. Sekine Y, & Nishimura A (2001) Removal Formaldehyde from Indoor Air by Passive Type Air-cleaning Materials. Atmospheric Environment, 35: 2001-7.
  21. Shin SK & Song JH (2011) Modeling and Simulations of The Removal of Formaldehyde Using Silver Nano-particles Attached to Granular Activated Carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 194: 385–392.
  22. Hameed BH, Din ATM, & Ahmad AL (2007) Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 141: 819–825.
  23. Chan LS, Cheung WH, & McKay G (2008) Adsorption of Acid Dyes by Bamboo Derived Activated Carbon. Desalination, 218: 304–312.
  24. Altenor S, Carene B, Emmanuel E, Lambert J, Ehrhardt J-J, & Gaspard S, (2009) Adsorption Studies of Methylene Blue and Phenol onto Vetiver Roots Activated Carbon Prepared by Chemical Activation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165: 1029–39.
  25. Li K, Zheng Z, Huang X, Zhao G, Feng, J, & Zhang J (2009) Equilibrium, Kinetic,and Thermodynamic Studies on The Adsorption of 2- Nitroaniline onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Cotton Stalk Fibre. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166: 213-220.
  26. Mui ELK., Cheung WH, Valix M, & McKay G (2010) Activated carbons from bamboo scaffolding using acid activation. Separation and Purification Technology, 74: 213–218.
  27. Horikawa T, Kitakaze Y, Sekida T, Hayashi J, & Katoh M (2010) Characteristics and humidity control capacity of activated carbon from bamboo. Bioresource Technology, 101: 3964–69.
  28. Sudibandriyo M (2011) Production of Super Activated Carbon from Coal and Coconut Shell using Chemical Activation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research, 3: 81-88.
  29. Hirunpraditkoon S, Tunthong N, Ruangchai A, & Nuithitikul K (2011) Adsorption Capacities of Activated Carbons Prepared from Bambu by KOH Activation. World Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology, 78: 711-715.
  30. Sharma YC (2011) Adsorption Characteristics of a Low-Cost Activated Carbon for the Reclamation of Colored Effluents Containing Malachite Green. Journal Chemical Engineering Data, 56: 478–484.
  31. Elmouwahidi A, Zapata-Benabithe Z, Carrasco-Marín F, & Moreno-Castilla C, (2012) Activated Carbons from KOH-Activation of Argan (Argania spinosa) Seed Shells as Supercapacitor Electrodes. Bioresource Technology, 111: 185-190.