Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC)
: The continuous production of ethyl ester was studied by using a steady-state fixed bed reactor (FBR). Transesterification of palm stearin (PS) and waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) with ethanol in the presence of calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC) solid catalyst was investigated. This work was determined the optimum conditions for the production of ethyl ester from PS and WCPO in order to obtain fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) with the highest yield. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, ethanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst bed height and reusability of catalyst in a reactor system on the yield of biodiesel were considered. The optimum conditions were the residence time 2-3 h, ethanol/oil molar ratio 16-20, reaction temperature at 800C, and catalyst bed height 300 mm which yielded 89.46% and 83.32% of the PS and WCPO conversion, respectively. CaO/PSAC could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. It has potential for industrial application in the transesterification of triglyceride (TG). The fuel properties of biodiesel were determined.
Keywords: biodiesel, calcium oxide, ethyl ester, fixed bed reactor, palm shell activated carbon
- Vasudevan PT, Briggs M (2008) Biodiesel Production-Current State of the Art and Challenges. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 35: 421-430.
- Santana A, Maçaira J, Larrayoz MA (2012) Continuous Production of Biodiesel Using Supercritical Fluids: A Comparative Study Between Methanol and Ethanol. Fuel Processing Technology 102: 110-115.
- Salum TFC, Villeneuve P, Barea B, Yamamoto CI, Côcco LC, Mitchell DA, Krieger N (2010) Synthesis of Biodiesel in Column Fixed-Bed Bioreactor Using the Fermented Solid Produced by Burkholderia Cepacia LTEB11. Process Biochemistry 45: 1348-1354.
- Noiroj K, Intarapong P, Luengnaruemitchai A, Jai-In S (2009) A Comparative Study of KOH/Al2O3 and KOH/NaY Catalysts for Biodiesel Production via Transesterification from Palm Oil. Renewable Energy 34: 1145-1150.
- Hameed BH, Goh CS, Chin LH (2009) Process Optimization for Methyl Ester Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Activated Carbon Supported Potassium Fluoride. Fuel Processing Technology 90: 1532-1537.
- Hsieh LS, Kumar U, Wu JCS (2010) Continuous Production of Biodiesel in a Packed-Bed Reactor Using Shell-Core Structural Ca(C3H7O3)2/CaCO3 Catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal 158: 250-256.
- Kouzu M, Hidaka JS (2012) Transesterification of Vegetable Oil into Biodiesel Catalyzed by CaO: A Review. Fuel 93: 1-12.
- Buasri A, Ksapabutr B, Panapoy M, Chaiyut N (2012) Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Palm Oil Using Calcium Oxide Supported on Activated Carbon as Catalyst in a Fixed Bed Reactor. Korean Journal Chemical Engineering 29: DOI:10.1007/s11814-012-0047-7 (in press).
- Xu Y, Nordblad M, Woodley JM (2012) A Two-Stage Enzymatic Ethanol-Based Biodiesel Production in a Packed Bed Reactor. Journal of Biotechnology: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.05.017 (in press).
- Buasri A, Chaiyut N, Ketlekha P, Mongkolwatee W, Boonrawd S (2009) Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil with a High Content of Free Fatty Acids and Fuel Properties. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences 8: 115-124.
- Buasri A, Chaiyut N, Nakweang C (2011) Preparing Activated Carbon from Palm Shell for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Chiang Mai Journal of Science 38: 572-578.
- Jiang ST, Zhang FJ, Pan LJ (2010) Sodium Phosphate as a Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Preparation. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 27: 137-144.
- Feng Y, Zhang A, Li J, He B (2011) A Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in a Fixed Bed Reactor Packed with Cation-Exchange Resin as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Bioresource Technology 102: 3607-3609.
- Lu P, Yuan Z, Li L, Wang Z, Luo W (2010) Biodiesel from Different Oil Using Fixed-Bed and Plug-Flow reactors. Renewable Energy 35: 283-287.
- Zhang Y, Dubé MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: 1. Process Design and Technological Assessment. Bioresource Technology 89: 1-16.
- Samart C, Sreetongkittikul P, Sookman C (2009) Heterogeneous Catalysis of Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using KI/Mesoporous Silica. Fuel Processing Technology 90: 922-925.
- Long T, Deng Y, Gan S, Chen J (2010) Application of Choline Chloride•xZnCl2 Ionic Liquids for Preparation of Biodiesel. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 18: 322-327.
- Chen Y, Xiao B, Chang J, Fu Y, Lv P, Wang X (2009) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil Using Immobilized Lipase in Fixed Bed Reactor. Energy Conversion and Management 50: 668-673.
- Khemthong P, Luadthong C, Nualpaeng W, Changsuwan P, Tongprem P, Viriya-empikul N, Faungnawakij K (2012) Industrial Eggshell Wastes as the Heterogeneous Catalysts for Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production. Catalysis Today: DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2011.12.024 (in press).
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.