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An Investigation into the Role of Tourism Growth, Conventional Energy Consumption and Real Income on Ecological Footprint Nexus in France

1Faculty of Economics Administrative and Social Sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey

2Department of Computing and Informatics, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom

3Adnan Kassar School of Business, Department of Economics Lebanese American University, Beirut , Lebanon

Received: 11 Dec 2021; Revised: 6 May 2022; Accepted: 10 Sep 2022; Available online: 25 Sep 2022; Published: 1 Jan 2023.
Editor(s): Grigorios Kyriakopoulos
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
Previously documented studies in the literature on how tourism leads to economic growth in the form of tourism-led growth hypotheses (TLGH) has been investigated. This study presents a new perspective on the growth of tourism by considering its impact on conventional energy consumption, real income level, and emission via the channel of globalization. Sequences of econometric tests were conducted to validate the hypothesized claims between tourism development and growth impact on conventional energy consumption and pollution proxy by ecological footprints, globalization GDP per capita, biocapacity, and tourists for the case of France. Empirical evidence from the Granger causality test presents a uni-directional causality from ecological footprints to GDP per capita and from biocapacity to ecological footprints. The correlation matrix shows interrelation amongst series with biocapacity significantly correlating with ecological footprints with tourist’s arrival having a positive correlation with ecological footprints and a negative one with biocapacity. GPD per capita was found to positively affect the ecological footprints and have a negative correlation with biocapacity and a significant relationship with tourists' arrivals. Additionally, globalization exerts a positive impact on ecological footprints, and its effect on biocapacity was found to be negative although globalization's effect on tourists’ arrivals and per capita GDP is significant. The ARDL estimation indicated biocapacity as a neutral agent for ecological footprints, tourist arrivals having a negative impact on ecological footprints, and globalization significantly affecting ecological footprints. From these findings, it is evident that tourism growth has a significant impact on energy consumption and pollution. Policy recommendations were also provided in this study accordingly. 
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Keywords: Biocapacity; Tourists Arrivals; Globalization; energy consumption; Tourism growth; Ecological footprints.
Funding: none

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