skip to main content

Electrical Energy Management According to Pricing Policy: A Case in Vietnam

1Academy of Political Regional II, Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam

2PATET Research Group, Ho Chi Minh city University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam

3Faculty of Business Administration, HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam

Received: 9 Feb 2022; Revised: 25 May 2022; Accepted: 10 Jun 2022; Available online: 20 Jun 2022; Published: 4 Aug 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Electrical equipment is increasingly diversified in both types and capacity to meet the maximum needs of people in the 4th industrial revolution. This development has helped people to achieve many great scientific achievements, but this development has led to a rapid increase in the demand for electric energy in recent years. The traditional electricity supply from fossil fuels is gradually depleting, which has prompted the search for clean and renewable energy sources to gradually replace the dependence on this energy source. Prosumer, HEMS (home energy management system), and other solutions have been researched and applied to optimize electrical energy sources. However, for countries that mainly use fossil energy sources like Vietnam, these solutions are not effective. Policy on the management could help to solve this problem, in particular, the price policy is the solution that Vietnam has used to effectively manage this energy source. This article analyzes the issues of applicable pricing policy in Vietnam, proposes potential policies to improve and protect the electric energy system, as well as enhances the rate of renewable energy use in the electricity system in Vietnam

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Electricity; Energy management; Pricing policy; Renewable energy

Article Metrics:

  1. Aghaei, J., & Alizadeh, M. (2013). Critical peak pricing with load control demand response program in unit commitment problem. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 7(7), 681–690.
  2. Al Essa, M. J. M. (2019). Home energy management of thermostatically controlled loads and photovoltaic-battery systems. Energy, 176, 742–752.
  3. Atabani, A. E., Tyagi, V. K., Fongaro, G., Treichel, H., Pugazhendhi, A., & Hoang, A. T. (2021). Integrated biorefineries, circular bio-economy, and valorization of organic waste streams with respect to bio-products (p. 1). Springer.
  4. Avtar, S., Aggarwal, C., Kharrazi, Y., Dou, & Kurniawan. (2019). Exploring Renewable Energy Resources Using Remote Sensing and GIS—A Review. Resources, 8(3), 149.
  5. Bakır, H., Ağbulut, Ü., Gürel, A. E., Yıldız, G., Güvenç, U., Soudagar, M. E. M., Hoang, A. T., Deepanraj, B., Saini, G., & Afzal, A. (2022). Forecasting of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectory for India using energy and economic indexes with various metaheuristic algorithms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 131946.
  6. Bukar, A. L., & Tan, C. W. (2019). A review on stand-alone photovoltaic-wind energy system with fuel cell: System optimization and energy management strategy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 221, 73–88
  7. Cecelski, E. (2002). Enabling Equitable Access to Rural Electrification: Current Thinking on Energy, Poverty and Gender. Energia, January 2000, 46
  8. Chen, W.-H., Nižetić, S., Sirohi, R., Huang, Z., Luque, R., M.Papadopoulos, A., Sakthivel, R., Phuong Nguyen, X., & Tuan Hoang, A. (2022). Liquid hot water as sustainable biomass pretreatment technique for bioenergy production: A review. Bioresource Technology, 344, 126207.
  9. Chen, W.-H., Wang, J.-S., Chang, M.-H., Mutuku, J. K., & Hoang, A. T. (2021). Efficiency improvement of a vertical-axis wind turbine using a deflector optimized by Taguchi approach with modified additive method. Energy Conversion and Management, 245, 114609
  10. Chen, W.-H., Wang, J.-S., Chang, M.-H., Tuan Hoang, A., Shiung Lam, S., Kwon, E. E., & Ashokkumar, V. (2022). Optimization of a vertical axis wind turbine with a deflector under unsteady wind conditions via Taguchi and neural network applications. Energy Conversion and Management, 254, 115209.
  11. Choi, S., & Min, S.-W. (2018). Optimal Scheduling and Operation of the ESS for Prosumer Market Environment in Grid-Connected Industrial Complex. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 54(3), 1949–1957.
  12. Danish Energy Agency. (2017). VIETNAM Energy Outlook Report 2017
  13. Dimeas, A., Drenkard, S., Hatziargyriou, N., Karnouskos, S., Kok, K., Ringelstein, J., & Weidlich, A. (2014). Smart Houses in the Smart Grid: Developing an interactive network. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 2(1), 81–93.
  14. Dincer, I., Rosen, M. A., & Ahmadi, P. (2017). Optimization of energy systems. John Wiley & Sons
  15. Do, T. M., & Sharma, D. (2011). Vietnam’s energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies. Energy Policy, 39(10), 5770–5777
  16. Dong, V. H., & Nguyen, X. P. (2020). A strategy development for optimal generating power of small wind-diesel-solar hybrid microgrid system. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), 1329–1334.
  17. Duc Luong, N. (2015). A critical review on Energy Efficiency and Conservation policies and programs in Vietnam. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 623–634.
  18. Eghtedarpour, N., & Farjah, E. (2014). Power Control and Management in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5(3), 1494–1505.
  19. Eldali, F. A., Vadana D, P., Burkhardt, J., & Suryanarayanan, S. (2020). A data decomposition approach to design a dynamic pricing mechanism for residence-based plug-in electric vehicles in wind energy-rich grids. ETransportation, 4, 100062.
  20. Espe, E., Potdar, V., & Chang, E. (2018). Prosumer communities and relationships in smart grids: A literature review, evolution and future directions. Energies, 11(10).
  21. EVN. (n.d.). Vietnam Electricity. Retrieved April 11, 2022, from
  22. Faheem, M., Shah, S. B. H., Butt, R. A., Raza, B., Anwar, M., Ashraf, M. W., Ngadi, M. A., & Gungor, V. C. (2018). Smart grid communication and information technologies in the perspective of Industry 4.0: Opportunities and challenges. Computer Science Review, 30, 1–30.
  23. Gandhi, A. M., Shanmugan, S., Kumar, R., Elsheikh, A. H., Sharifpur, M., Bewoor, A. K., Bamisile, O., Hoang, A. T., & Ongar, B. (2022). SiO2/TiO2 nanolayer synergistically trigger thermal absorption inflammatory responses materials for performance improvement of stepped basin solar stillnatural distiller. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 52, 101974
  24. Global Petrol Prices. (2021). Electricity prices.
  25. Golshannavaz, S. (2018). Cooperation of electric vehicle and energy storage in reactive power compensation: An optimal home energy management system considering PV presence. Sustainable Cities and Society, 39, 317–325.
  26. Ha, T. M., Fukada, S., Ueno, T., & Ho, D.-D. (2020). Vibration-Based Energy Harvester For Sustainable Structural Health Monitoring System: A Case Study On A Prestressed Concrete Girder. Journal of Technology & Innovation, 1(1), 16–19.
  27. Hadiyanto, H., Christwardana, M., Pratiwi, W. Z., Purwanto, P., Sudarno, S., Haryani, K., & Hoang, A. T. (2022). Response surface optimization of microalgae microbial fuel cell (MMFC) enhanced by yeast immobilization for bioelectricity production. Chemosphere, 287, 132275.
  28. Hannah, R., & Max, R. (2020). Vietnam: Energy Country Profile.
  29. Hayakawa, S., Fukue, T., Shirakawa, H., & Hiratsuka, W. (2020). CFD-Based Study On Relationship Between Cooling Performance Of Pulsating Flow And Rib Height Mounted In Mini Rectangular Channel. Journal of Technology & Innovation, 1(1), 26–29.
  30. Hemmati, R. (2017). Technical and economic analysis of home energy management system incorporating small-scale wind turbine and battery energy storage system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 159, 106–118.
  31. Hemmati, R., & Saboori, H. (2017). Stochastic optimal battery storage sizing and scheduling in home energy management systems equipped with solar photovoltaic panels. Energy and Buildings, 152, 290–300.
  32. Hoang, A. T., Foley, A. M., Nižetić, S., Huang, Z., Ong, H. C., Ölçer, A. I., Pham, V. V., & Nguyen, X. P. (2022). Energy-related approach for reduction of CO2 emissions: A critical strategy on the port-to-ship pathway. Journal of Cleaner Production, 355, 131772.
  33. Hoang, A. T., Huang, Z., Nižetić, S., Pandey, A., Nguyen, X. P., Luque, R., Ong, H. C., Said, Z., & Le, T. H. (2021). Characteristics of hydrogen production from steam gasification of plant-originated lignocellulosic biomass and its prospects in Vietnam. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  34. Hoang, A. T., Le, T. H., Chitsomboon, T., & Koonsrisook, A. (2021). Experimental investigation of solar energy-based water distillation using inclined metal tubes as collector and condenser. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–17.
  35. Hoang, A. T., Nguyen, X. P., Le, A. T., Huynh, T. T., & Pham, V. V. (2021). COVID-19 and the Global Shift Progress to Clean Energy. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 143(9).
  36. Hoang, A. T., Nižetić, S., Ng, K. H., Papadopoulos, A. M., Le, A. T., Kumar, S., Hadiyanto, H., & Pham, V. V. (2022). Microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production from waste as sustainable prospect of future energy sector. Chemosphere, 287, 132285.
  37. Hoang, A. T., Ong, H. C., Fattah, I. M. R., Chong, C. T., Cheng, C. K., Sakthivel, R., & Ok, Y. S. (2021). Progress on the lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis for biofuel production toward environmental sustainability. Fuel Processing Technology, 223, 106997.
  38. Hoang, A. T., Pham, V. V., & Nguyen, X. P. (2021). Integrating renewable sources into energy system for smart city as a sagacious strategy towards clean and sustainable process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 305, 127161.
  39. Hoang, A. T., Sandro Nižetić, Olcer, A. I., Ong, H. C., Chen, W.-H., Chong, C. T., Thomas, S., Bandh, S. A., & Nguyen, X. P. (2021). Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the global energy system and the shift progress to renewable energy: Opportunities, challenges, and policy implications. Energy Policy, 154, 112322.
  40. Hoang, A. T., Sirohi, R., Pandey, A., Nižetić, S., Lam, S. S., Chen, W.-H., Luque, R., Thomas, S., Arıcı, M., & Pham, V. V. (2022). Biofuel production from microalgae: challenges and chances. Phytochemistry Reviews.
  41. Hoang, A. T., Varbanov, P. S., Nižetić, S., Sirohi, R., Pandey, A., Luque, R., Ng, K. H., & Pham, V. V. (2022). Perspective review on Municipal Solid Waste-to-energy route: Characteristics, management strategy, and role in circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 359, 131897.
  42. Iqbal, J., Khan, M., Talha, M., Farman, H., Jan, B., Muhammad, A., & Khattak, H. A. (2018). A generic internet of things architecture for controlling electrical energy consumption in smart homes. Sustainable Cities and Society, 43, 443–450.
  43. Jain, A., Sarsaiya, S., Kumar Awasthi, M., Singh, R., Rajput, R., Mishra, U. C., Chen, J., & Shi, J. (2022). Bioenergy and bio-products from bio-waste and its associated modern circular economy: Current research trends, challenges, and future outlooks. Fuel, 307, 121859.
  44. Jiang, T., Deng, H., Bai, L., Zhang, R., Li, X., & Chen, H. (2018). Optimal energy flow and nodal energy pricing in carbon emission-embedded integrated energy systems. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 4(2), 179–187.
  45. Johnson, S., Kien, C., & Lindsay, A. (2021). Vietnam’s latest power development plan focuses on expanding renewable sources.
  46. Khattak, H. A., Tehreem, K., Almogren, A., Ameer, Z., Din, I. U., & Adnan, M. (2020). Dynamic pricing in industrial internet of things: Blockchain application for energy management in smart cities. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 55, 102615.
  47. Kiliccote, S., Piette, M. A., Watson, D. S., & Hughes, G. (2006). Dynamic controls for energy efficiency and demand response: Framework concepts and a new construction study case in New York. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.(LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  48. Koirala, B. P., Koliou, E., Friege, J., Hakvoort, R. A., & Herder, P. M. (2016). Energetic communities for community energy: A review of key issues and trends shaping integrated community energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, 722–744.
  49. Le, T. H., Pham, M. T., Hadiyanto, H., Pham, V. V., & Hoang, A. T. (2021). Influence of various basin types on performance of passive solar still: A review. In International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 10(4), 789–802).
  50. Lee, C., & Lim, C. (2021). From technological development to social advance: A review of Industry 4.0 through machine learning. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 167, 120653.
  51. Li, Y., Gao, W., Zhang, X., Ruan, Y., Ushifusa, Y., & Hiroatsu, F. (2020). Techno-economic performance analysis of zero energy house applications with home energy management system in Japan. Energy and Buildings, 214, 109862.
  52. Liu, J., Song, R., Nasreen, S., & Hoang, A. T. (2019). Analysis of the Complementary Property of Solar Energy and Thermal Power Based on Coupling Model. Nature Environment & Pollution Technology, 18(5)
  53. Liu, Y., Zuo, K., Liu, X. (Amy), Liu, J., & Kennedy, J. M. (2018). Dynamic pricing for decentralized energy trading in micro-grids. Applied Energy, 228, 689–699.
  54. Lokeshgupta, B., & Sivasubramani, S. (2018). Multi-objective dynamic economic and emission dispatch with demand side management. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 97, 334–343.
  55. Lokeshgupta, B., & Sivasubramani, S. (2019). Multi-objective home energy management with battery energy storage systems. Sustainable Cities and Society, 47, 101458.
  56. Ma, K., Hu, G., & Spanos, C. J. (2014). Distributed Energy Consumption Control via Real-Time Pricing Feedback in Smart Grid. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 22(5), 1907–1914.
  57. Malla, F. A., Mushtaq, A., Bandh, S. A., Qayoom, I., Hoang, A. T., & Shahid-e-Murtaza. (2022). Understanding Climate Change: Scientific Opinion and Public Perspective. In Climate Change (pp. 1–20). Springer International Publishing.
  58. Mbungu, N. T., Bansal, R. C., Naidoo, R., Miranda, V., & Bipath, M. (2018). An optimal energy management system for a commercial building with renewable energy generation under real-time electricity prices. Sustainable Cities and Society, 41, 392–404.
  59. Mehrjerdi, H. (2020). Peer-to-peer home energy management incorporating hydrogen storage system and solar generating units. Renewable Energy, 156, 183–192.
  60. Mohd, A., Ortjohann, E., Schmelter, A., Hamsic, N., & Morton, D. (2008). Challenges in integrating distributed Energy storage systems into future smart grid. 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 1627–1632.
  61. Mohsenian-Rad, A.-H., & Leon-Garcia, A. (2010). Optimal Residential Load Control With Price Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Pricing Environments. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 1(2), 120–133.
  62. Morstyn, T., & McCulloch, M. D. (2019). Multiclass Energy Management for Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Driven by Prosumer Preferences. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 34(5), 4005–4014.
  63. Narayanan, A., Kaipia, T., & Partanen, J. (2016). Economic benefits of photovoltaic-based systems for residential customers participating in open electricity markets. IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe.
  64. NEWS GLOBAL COMPLIANCE. (2021). Vietnam: Key highlights of new draft of national power development plan (Draft PDP8).
  65. Nezamoddini, N., & Wang, Y. (2017). Real-time electricity pricing for industrial customers: Survey and case studies in the United States. Applied Energy, 195, 1023–1037.
  66. Nguyen Duc, T., Tran Thanh, S., Do Van, L., Tran Quoc, N., & Takano, H. (2022). Impact of renewable energy integration on a novel method for pricing incentive payments of incentive‐based demand response program. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 16(8), 1648–1667.
  67. Nguyen, H. P., Hoang, A. T., Le, A. T., Pham, V. V., & Tran, V. N. (2020). Learned experiences from the policy and roadmap of advanced countries for the strategic orientation to electric vehicles: A case study in Vietnam. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–10.
  68. Nguyen, H. P., Hoang, A. T., Nizetic, S., Nguyen, X. P., Le, A. T., Luong, C. N., Chu, V. D., & Pham, V. V. (2021). The electric propulsion system as a green solution for management strategy of CO 2 emission in ocean shipping: A comprehensive review. International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, 31(11).
  69. Nguyen, H. P., Le, P. Q. H., Pham, V. V., Nguyen, X. P., Balasubramaniam, D., & Hoang, A.-T. (2021). Application of the Internet of Things in 3E (efficiency, economy, and environment) factor-based energy management as smart and sustainable strategy. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–23
  70. Nguyen, X. P., Le, N. D., Pham, V. V., Huynh, T. T., Dong, V. H., & Hoang, A. T. (2021). Mission, challenges, and prospects of renewable energy development in Vietnam. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–13.
  71. Nižetić, S., Jurčević, M., Čoko, D., Arıcı, M., & Hoang, A. T. (2021). Implementation of phase change materials for thermal regulation of photovoltaic thermal systems: Comprehensive analysis of design approaches. Energy, 120546
  72. Ozturk, Y., Senthilkumar, D., Kumar, S., & Lee, G. (2013). An Intelligent Home Energy Management System to Improve Demand Response. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 4(2), 694–701.
  73. Parag, Y., & Sovacool, B. K. (2016). Electricity market design for the prosumer era. Nature Energy 2016 1:4, 1(4), 1–6.
  74. Park, L., Yoon, Y., Cho, S., & Choi, S. (2020). Prosumer Energy Management Considering Contract With Consumers Under Progressive Pricing Policy. IEEE Access, 8, 115789–115799.
  75. Prinsloo, G., Dobson, R., & Mammoli, A. (2018). Synthesis of an intelligent rural village microgrid control strategy based on smartgrid multi-agent modelling and transactive energy management principles. Energy, 147, 263–278.
  76. Prudhviraj, D., B. S. Kiran, P., & M. Pindoriya, N. (2020). Stochastic Energy Management of Microgrid with Nodal Pricing. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 8(1), 102–110.
  77. PWC. (2016). Electricity beyond the grid: Accelerating access to sustainable power for all. PwC Global Power & Utilities, 1–24
  78. Radwan, A. A. A., & Mohamed, Y. A.-R. I. (2017). Networked Control and Power Management of AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids. IEEE Systems Journal, 11(3), 1662–1673.
  79. Rajamoorthy, R., Arunachalam, G., Kasinathan, P., Devendiran, R., Ahmadi, P., Pandiyan, S., Muthusamy, S., Panchal, H., Kazem, H. A., & Sharma, P. (2022). A novel intelligent transport system charging scheduling for electric vehicles using Grey Wolf Optimizer and Sail Fish Optimization algorithms. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 44(2), 3555–3575.
  80. Ramezani, M., Bahmanyar, D., & Razmjooy, N. (2020). A new optimal energy management strategy based on improved multi-objective antlion optimization algorithm: applications in smart home. SN Applied Sciences, 2(12), 2075.
  81. Rathnayaka, A. J. D., Potdar, V. M., Dillon, T., & Kuruppu, S. (2015). Framework to manage multiple goals in community-based energy sharing network in smart grid. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 73, 615–624.
  82. Roy, S., Lam, Y. F., Hossain, M. U., & Chan, J. C. L. (2022). Comprehensive evaluation of electricity generation and emission reduction potential in the power sector using renewable alternatives in Vietnam. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 157, 112009.
  83. Said, Z., Rahman, S., Sharma, P., Amine Hachicha, A., & Issa, S. (2022). Performance characterization of a solar-powered shell and tube heat exchanger utilizing MWCNTs/water-based nanofluids: An experimental, numerical, and artificial intelligence approach. Applied Thermal Engineering, 212, 118633.
  84. Said, Z., Sharma, P., Tiwari, A. K., Le, V. V., Huang, Z., Bui, V. G., & Hoang, A. T. (2022). Application of novel framework based on ensemble boosted regression trees and Gaussian process regression in modelling thermal performance of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) using hybrid nanofluid. Journal of Cleaner Production, 360, 132194.
  85. Sang Le, T.-, & Hong Hieu, L. (2020). A Comparison Of Lyapunov And Fuzzy Approaches To Tracking Controller Design. Journal of Technology & Innovation, 1(2), 54–57.
  86. Sharma, P., Sahoo, B. B., Said, Z., Hadiyanto, H., Nguyen, X. P., Nižetić, S., Huang, Z., Hoang, A. T., & Li, C. (2022). Application of machine learning and Box-Behnken design in optimizing engine characteristics operated with a dual-fuel mode of algal biodiesel and waste-derived biogas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
  87. Stevens, L., Wilcox, M., Leopold, A., Taylor, C., & Waters, L. (2016). Poor People’s Energy Outlook 2016. Practical Action Publishing Ltd.
  88. Subramanian, M., Hoang, A. T., Kalidasan, B., Nižetić, S., Soloman, J. M., Balasubramanian, D., Subramaniyan, C., Thenmozhi, G., Metghalchi, H., & Nguyen, X. P. (2021). A technical review on composite phase change material based secondary assisted battery thermal management system for electric vehicles. Journal of Cleaner Production, 129079
  89. U S Department of Energy. (2006). Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. U.S. Department of Energy, February, 122
  90. Unamuno, E., & Barrena, J. A. (2015). Hybrid ac/dc microgrids—Part I: Review and classification of topologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 1251–1259.
  91. Vergados, D. J., Mamounakis, I., Makris, P., & Varvarigos, E. (2016). Prosumer clustering into virtual microgrids for cost reduction in renewable energy trading markets. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, 7, 90–103.
  92. Yu, X., & Xue, Y. (2016). Smart Grids: A Cyber–Physical Systems Perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(5), 1058–1070.
  93. Zafar, R., Mahmood, A., Razzaq, S., Ali, W., Naeem, U., & Shehzad, K. (2018). Prosumer based energy management and sharing in smart grid. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 1675–1684.
  94. Zhao, X., Gao, W., Qian, F., & Ge, J. (2021). Electricity cost comparison of dynamic pricing model based on load forecasting in home energy management system. Energy, 229, 120538.
  95. Zhou, J. H., Tian, L. G., & Pan, H. (2015). Study of planning and design of hybrid AC/DC micro-grid. Journal of Hefei University of Technology (Natural Science), 38(2), 166–170

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.