skip to main content

Co-firing of coal and woody biomass under conditions of reburning technology with natural gas

1University of Sarajevo - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Vilsonovo setaliste 9, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

2Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. - Sarajevo Power utility, Power plant Kakanj - Kakanj, 72240 Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Received: 14 Nov 2022; Revised: 17 Jan 2023; Accepted: 5 Feb 2023; Available online: 11 Mar 2023; Published: 15 May 2023.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

It is a continuous imperative to establish the most efficient process of conversion of primary energy from fuel through combustion, which also has the least possible harmful effect on the environment. In this time of expressed demands for decarbonisation, it also means the affirmation of the use of renewable fuels and the indispensable application of appropriate primary measures in the combustion furnace. At the same time, the efficiency of the combustion process depends on several factors, from the type and properties of the fuel to the ambient and technological settings for the process. In this regard, with the aim of determining the static characteristics of combustion, experimental laboratory research was carried out on the combustion of mixtures of brown coal with low heating value and a high ash content with waste woody biomass and different process conditions: temperature, staged combustion air supply (air staging) and in conditions of application of a third or additional fuel (natural gas, reburning technology). Applied experimental methods included the analysis of the combustion process on the basis of input (reactants) - output (products), including the analysis of the composition of flue gases, i.e. the determination of the emission of the key components of flue gases CO2, CO, NOx and SO2, as well as the analysis of the composition of slag, ash and deposits ash, i.e. assessment and evaluation of the behaviour of ash from fuel in that process. Based on the obtained research results, this paper shows the significant positive effects of the application of primary measures in the furnace - compared to conventional combustion: air staging - reduction of net CO2 emissions during co-firing with biomass and reduction of NOx emissions by up to 30%; reburning technology - additional reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions in proportion to the share of natural gas, e.g. at a combustion process temperature of 1350 °C and at a 10% energy share of natural gas during the co-firing of a mixture of brown coal and waste woody biomass, compared to the emission without the use of natural gas, a reduction of NOx emissions by 185 mg/mn3 or by almost 30% was recorded. It was concluded, at the same time, the application of these primary measures in the furnace does not negatively affect the behaviour of ash from the fuel in the given settings of the combustion process.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: coal; woody biomass; natural gas; combustion; furnace; air staging; reburning technology; emission CO2; NOx; SO2
Funding: Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Youth of Sarajevo Canton - Bosnia and Herzegovina

Article Metrics:

  1. Chae, T., Lee, J., Lee, Y., Yang, W. & Ryu, C. (2021) Pilot-Scale Experimental Study on Impacts of Biomass Cofiring Methods to NOx Emission from Pulverized Coal Boilers - Part 2: NOx Reduction Capability through Reburning versus Cofiring, Energies, 14(20), 6552,
  2. Demirbas, A. (2004) Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30(2), 219-230,
  3. Fakudze, S. & Chen, J. (2022) A critical review on co-hydrothermal carbonization of biomass and fossil-based feed-stocks for cleaner solid fuel production: Synergistic effects and environmental benefits, Chemical Engineering Journal, 141004,
  4. Hodžić, N. (2016) Research on cocombustion of coal and biomass aimed at reducing emissions by primary measures in the furnace, Doctoral thesis, In Bosnian, University of Sarajevo - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sarajevo, COBISS.BH-ID - 27867654,
  5. Hodžić, N., Smajević, I. & Kazagić, A. (2016) Concept of co-firing coal with biomass and natural gas - on track of sustainable solution for future thermal power plants, Thermal Science, 20(4), 1171-1184,
  6. Hodžić, N., Kazagić, A. & Smajević, I. (2016) Influence of multiple air staging and reburning on NOx emissions during co-firing of low rank brown coal with woody biomass and natural gas, Applied Energy 168, 38-47.,
  7. Hodzic, N., Kazagic, A. & Kadic, K. (2020). Air Staging and Reburning to Achieve Low Emissions During Co-firing Coal and Biomass. In: Karabegović, I. (eds) New Technologies, Development and Application III. NT 2020. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 128. Springer, Cham.,
  8. Hodzic, N., Kazagic, A. & Kadic, K. (2021) Analysis of the Behavior of the Ash Depending on the Temperature of Combustion and Air Supply System. In: Karabegović I. (eds) New Technologies, Development and Application IV. NT 2021. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 233, 365-373, Springer, Cham.,
  9. Hurskainen, M. & Vainikka, P. (2016) 7 - Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion, Fuel Flexible Energy Generation, Solid, Liquid and Gaseous, Fuels, 2016, 177-199,
  10. Issac, M., Girolamo, A.D., Dai, B., Hosseini, T. & Zhang, L. (2020) Influence of biomass blends on the particle temperature and burnout characteristics during oxy-fuel co-combustion of coal, Journal of the Energy Institute, 93(1), 1-14,
  11. Jenkins, R.G. (2020) Chapter 15 - Thermal gasification of biomass - a primer, Bioenergy (Second Edition), Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy 2020, 293-324,
  12. Jing, N., Zhu, M., Shen, G., Wang, Q. & Zhang, D. (2016) Effect of ash preparation method on the sintering characteristics of ashes from combustion of coal and biomass blends, Fuel, 186, 830-837,
  13. Karampinis, E., Grammelis, P., Agraniotis, M., Violidakis, I. & Kakaras, E. (2013) Co-firing of biomass with coal in thermal power plants: technology schemes, impacts, and future perspectives, WIREs Energy Environ, 3, 384–399.
  14. Kazagić, A. & Smajević, I. (2007) Experimental investigation of ash behavior and emissions during combustion of Bosnian coal and biomass, Energy, 32(10), 2006-2016.,
  15. Kazagić, A., Smajević, I. & Duić, N. (2010) Selection of sustainable technologies for combustion of Bosnian coals, Thermal Science, 14(3), 715-727.,
  16. Kim, G-M., Choi, J.H., Jeon, C-H. & Lim, D-H. (2022) Effects of Cofiring Coal and Biomass Fuel on the Pulverized Coal Injection Combustion Zone in Blast Furnaces, Energies, 15(2), 655,
  17. Kuang, M., Li, Z., Ling, Z. & Zeng, X. (2014) Evaluation of staged air and overfire air in regulating air-staging conditions within a large-scale down-fired furnace, Applied Thermal Engineering 67(1-2), 97–105.,
  18. Kuang, M., Li, Z., Liu, C. & Zhu, Q. (2013) Experimental study on combustion and NOx emissions for a downfired supercritical boiler with multiple-injection multiple-staging technology without overfire air, Applied Energy, 106, 254–261.,
  19. Kurose, R., Ikeda, M. & Makino, H. (2001) Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in a pulverized coal combustion, Fuel, 80(10),1447-1455,
  20. Li, Y., Feng, D., Sun, S. Zhao, Y., Miao, D. & Wu, J. (2022) Reburning pulverized coal with natural gas/syngas upgrading: NO reducing ability and physicochemical structure evolution of coal char, Science of The Total Environment, 852, 158517,
  21. Ma, L., Jones, J.M., Pourkashanian, M. & Williams, A. (2007) Modelling the combustion of pulverized biomass in an industrial combustion test furnace, Fuel, 86 (12-13), 1959-1965,
  22. Madanayake, B.N., Gan, S., Eastwick, C. & Ng, H.K. (2017) Biomass as an energy source in coal co-firing and its feasibility enhancement via pretreatment techniques, Fuel Processing Technology, 159, 287-305,
  23. Nussbaumer, T. (2003) Combustion and co-combustion of biomass: Fundamentals, technologies and primary measures for emission reduction. Energy Fuels 17 (6), 1510–21.,
  24. Oladejo, J.M., Adegbite, S., Pang, C., Liu, H., Lester, E. & Wu, T. (2020) In-situ monitoring of the transformation of ash upon heating and the prediction of ash fusion behaviour of coal/biomass blends, Energy,199,
  25. Orooji, Y., Javadi, M., Karimi-Maleh, H., Aghaie, A-Z., Shayan, K., Sanati, A.L. & Darabi, R. (2021) Numerical and experimental investigation of natural gas injection effects on NOx reburning at the rotary cement kiln exhaust, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 151, 290-298,
  26. Pestaño, L.D.B. & Jose, W.I. (2016) Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3), 187-197,
  27. Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016) Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2), 95-100,
  28. Priyanto, D.E., Ueno, S., Sato, N., Kasai, H., Tanoue, T. & Fukushima, H. (2016) Ash transformation by co-firing of coal with high ratios of woody biomass and effect on slagging propensity, Fuel, 174(15),172-179,
  29. Raatikka, L.M. (2011) Woody Biomass Co-Firing in Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers, Conference: ASME 2011 Power Conference collocated with JSME ICOPE 2011, 339-350,
  30. Rizvi, T., Xing, P., Pourkashanian, M. Darvell, L.I., Jones, J.M. & Nimmo, W. (2015) Prediction of biomass ash fusion behaviour by the use of detailed characterisation methods coupled with thermodynamic ana-lysis, Fuel, 141, 275-284,
  31. Rozendaal, M. (1999) Impact of coal quality on NOx emissions from power plants, doctoral thesis, Delft: Delft University of Technology,
  32. Sami, M., Annamalai, K. & Wooldridge, M. (2001) Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 27 (2), 171-214,
  33. Smajević, I., Kazagić, A., Musić, M., Bečić, K., Hasanbegović, I., Sokolović, Š., Delihasanović, N., Skopljak, A. & Hodžić, N. (2012) Co-firing Bosnian Coals with woody biomass: experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit, Thermal Science, 16, 789 - 804.,
  34. Tsumura, T., Okazaki, H., Dernjatin, P. & Savolainen, K. (2003) Reducing the minimum load and NOx emissions for lignite-fired boiler by applying a stable-flame concept, Applied Energy, 74 (3-4), 415-424.,
  35. Wang, J., Fan, W., Li, Y., Xiao, M., Wang, K. & Ren P. (2012) The effect of air staged combustion on NOx emissions in dried lignite combustion, Energy, 37(1) , 725–736.,
  36. Yuan, Y., He, Y., Tan, J., Wang, Y., Kumar, S. & Wang, Z. (2021) Co-Combustion Characteristics of Typical Biomass and Coal Blends by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Front. Energy Res., Sec. Advanced Clean Fuel Technologies,
  37. Yustanti, E., Muharman, A. & Mursito, A. T. (2022) The Effect of Wood Tar and Molasses Composition on Calorific Value and Compressive Strength in Biocoke Briquetting, International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 11(3), 600-607,
  38. Zevenhoven, M., Yrjas, P., Skrifvars, B-J. & Hupa, M. (2012) Characterization of Ash-Forming Matter in Various Solid Fuels by Selective Leaching and Its Implications for Fluidized-Bed Combu-stion, Energy Fuels , 26 (10), 6366-6386,
  39. Zhou, W., Marquez, A., Moyeda, D., Nareddy, S., Frato, J., Yu, G., Knarvik, S. &Frøseth, V. (2010) Design and Test of a Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR) System for Full-Scale Refinery CO Boilers To Achieve High NOx Removal, Energy Fuels, 24(7), 3936-3941.,

Last update:

  1. Comprehensive experimental assessment of Samanea saman wood and leaves waste combustion in the aspect of ash-related problem

    Suyatno Suyatno, Hafizh Ghazidin, Hanafi Prida Putra, Fairuz Milkiy Kuswa, Moch Zulfikar Eka Prayoga, Atok Setiyawan, Prabowo Prabowo, Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Nina Konitat Supriatna, Arif Darmawan, Firman Bagja Juangsa, Muhammad Aziz, Hariana Hariana. Bioresource Technology Reports, 26 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.biteb.2024.101852
  2. Estimation of the main air pollutants from different biomasses under combustion atmospheres by artificial neural networks

    Thalyssa Oliveira Monteiro, Pedro Augusto Araújo da Silva de Almeida Nava Alves, Alex Oliveira Barradas Filho, Harvey Alexander Villa-Vélez, Glauber Cruz. Chemosphere, 352 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2024.141484
  3. Recent advances in hydrogen production from biomass waste with a focus on pyrolysis and gasification

    Van Giao Nguyen, Thanh Xuan Nguyen-Thi, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen, Viet Dung Tran, Ümit Ağbulut, Lan Huong Nguyen, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Wieslaw Tarelko, Suhaib A. Bandh, Nguyen Dang Khoa Pham. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 54 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.05.049

Last update: 2024-05-24 11:35:56

No citation recorded.