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Investigation of wind veer characteristics on complex terrain using ground-based lidar

1Multidisciplinary Graduate School Program for Wind Energy, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakro, Jeju, 63243, South Korea

2Department of Electrical and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakro, Jeju, 63243, South Korea

Received: 12 Jul 2023; Revised: 6 Oct 2023; Accepted: 26 Oct 2023; Available online: 5 Nov 2023; Published: 1 Jan 2024.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
The wind direction shift with height significantly influences wind turbine performance, particularly in relation to terrain conditions. In this work, wind conditions at 12 measurement heights ranging from 40 m to 200 m using a ground lidar, Windcube V2, installed on a 16 m tall building were analysed to examine the characteristics of wind veer angles in complex terrain. The measurement campaign was carried out from January 1st to December 31st, 2022, in the southeastern part of South Korea. The terrain complexity around the ground lidar system was evaluated using the ruggedness index (RIX), whose result was 14.06 percent corresponding to complex terrain. The ground lidar measurements were compared with mesoscale data, EMD-WRF South Korea, for the data accuracy check. Wind veer frequencies and wind roses were derived to identify directional shifts with height. Furthermore, diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variations of wind veer characteristics were analysed. Wind shear exponent factor (WSE) and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) were calculated, and wind veer profiles were constructed based on these parameters. The relative errors of wind speeds were analysed for rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) and hub height wind speed (HHWS), with REWS with wind veer correction, REWSveer, as a reference. Additionally, atmospheric stability conditions were classified using WSE and TKE, and the vertical changes in wind veering were analysed according to the stability conditions. The findings reveal lower wind speeds exhibited larger wind veer values and fluctuations. The relative errors for the REWS and the HHWS were 0.04 % and 0.20 % on average, respectively. The study demonstrates that terrain conditions significantly impacted wind veer angles at heights below 100 m, whereas the influence diminished with increasing height above 100 m. The results could be helpful for wind farm developers to make decisions on the siting as well as the hub height of wind turbines on complex terrain
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Keywords: Wind data; Ground lidar; Complex terrain; Wind veer; Atmospheric stability
Funding: Jeju National University

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