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Enhancing microbial fuel cell performance with carbon powder electrode modifications for low-power sensors modules

1Centre for Sustainable Communication and Internet of Things (CSCIoT), Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia

2Department for Computer Engineering and Computer Science (CECS), School of Engineering and Computing (SOEC), MILA University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

3Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received: 8 Sep 2023; Revised: 10 Nov 2023; Accepted: 22 Nov 2023; Available online: 27 Nov 2023; Published: 1 Jan 2024.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a promising technology for harnessing energy from organic compounds. However, the low power generation of MFCs remains a significant challenge that hinders their commercial viability. In this study, we reported three distinct modifications to the stainless-steel mesh (SSM), carbon cloth, and carbon felt electrodes using carbon powder (CP), a mixture of CP and ferrum, and a blend of CP with sodium citrate and ethanol. The MFC equipped with an SSM and CP anode showed a notable power density of 1046.89 mW.m-2. In comparison, the bare SSM anode achieved a maximum power density of 145.8 mW m-2. Remarkably, the 3D-modified SSM with a CP anode (3D-SSM-CP) MFC exhibited a substantial breakthrough, attaining a maximum power density of 1417.07 mW m-2. This achievement signifies a significant advancement over the performance of the unaltered SSM anode, underscoring the effectiveness of our modification approach. Subsequently, the 3D-SSM-CP electrode was integrated into single-chamber MFCs, which were used to power a LoRaWAN IoT device through a power management system. The modification methods improved the MFC performance while involving low-cost and easy fabricating techniques. The results of this study are expected to contribute to improving MFC's performance, bringing them closer to becoming a practical source of renewable energy.

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Keywords: Anode Modification; Carbon Powder; Internet of Things (IoT); Microbial Fuel Cell; Power Management Systems; Renewable Energy; Stainless-Steel Mesh.

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