Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 27-12-2014
Published: 15-10-2014
Section: Original Research Article
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Heat loss through the windows of solid wall dwellings is one of the factors contributing to high energy consumption for space heating ensuing in preventable carbon emissions. This research forms a part of novel contribution in vacuum glazing science presenting the refurbishment technology of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing to existing UK solid wall dwelling by investigating the space-heating load, solar energy gain and window to wall area ratios. Three-dimensional dynamic thermal models, considering realistic heating and occupancy regimes, of an externally insulated solid wall dwelling with single glazed, double glazed air filled, double glazed argon gas filled, triple glazed air filled and triple vacuum glazed windows were developed. Predictions for the simulated dwelling when replacing single glazed windows with triple vacuum glazed windows indicate space-heating energy saving of 14.58% (871.1 kWh) for the winter months (Dec, Jan and Feb); predicted annual energy savings are 15.31% (1863.5 kWh). The predicted reduction in the solar energy gains for the triple vacuum glazing was 75.3 kWh in the winter months. The effects on solar energy gain are analysed and the potential to increase window-to-wall area ratios (WWR’s) examined. For a simulated room with triple vacuum glazed windows increasing the WWR’s from 5% to 59% led to a reduction in the predicted required space-heating; whilst for a room with single glazed, double air filled, double argon gas filled and triple air filled windows the predicted required space-heating increased with increasing WWR. It was shown that retrofitting existing solid wall dwelling with triple vacuum glazed windows could be a robust retrofit solution in improving building energy efficiency. This research also implicates a need of the cost-effective development of triple vacuum glazing at the manufacturing level, which would then be more beneficial to consumers in terms of energy and cost savings.

  1. Saim Memon 
    aSchool of Engineering, Science & Technology, North East Scotland College, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, AB123LE, United Kingdom
  1. ASHRAE (1989) ASHRAE Guideline 62-1989: Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
  2. Banfill, P., Simpson, S., Haines, V. & Mallaband, B. (2011) Energy-led retrofitting of solid wall dwellings: technical and user perspectives on airtightness. Journal of Structural Survey 30: 267-279.
  3. Baker, N. & Steemers, K (1996) LT Method 3.0-a strategic energy-design tool for Southern Europe. Journal of Energy and Buildings 23: 251-256.
  4. Birch, A (2010) BRE’s Victorian terrace retrofit project, Building design online. Available via http://www.bdonline.co.uk/bre%E2%80%99s-victorian-terrace-retrofit-project/5000095.article. Accessed 15 Dec 2012.
  5. Boardman, B., Darby, S., Philip, G., Hinnells, M., Jardine, C.N., Palmer, J. & Sinden, G (2005) 40% House. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford.
  6. BRE (2012) The Government’s Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy rating of Dwellings,Garston: Building Research Establishment. Available via www.bre.co.uk/sap2005. Accessed 25 Oct 2012.
  7. BS (2007a) BS EN ISO 6946: Building components and building elements-Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance-Calculation method. British Standard.
  8. BS (2007b) BS EN 13779: Ventilation for non-residential buildings-Performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems. British Standard.
  9. BS (2006) BS En ISO 10077-1: Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters-calculation of thermal transmittance Part 1 General. British Standard.
  10. BS (2003) BS En ISO 10077-2: Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters-calculation of thermal transmittance Part 2 Numerical method for frames. British Standard.
  11. BS (1998) BS EN 673: Glass in building-Determination of thermal transmittance (U value)-Calculation method. British Standard.
  12. British Gas (2012). Energy tariffs standard. Available via http://www.britishgas.co.uk/products-and-services/energy/our-tariffs/standard.html#PriceMapFlash. Accessed on 16 Dec 2012.
  13. Crawley, D. B., Hand, J. W., Kummert, M. & Griffith, B. T (2008) Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs. Building and Environment, 43 (4): 661-673.
  14. CIBSE (2012) Guide F: Energy efficiency in buildings (3rd eds), The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London.
  15. CIBSE (2006) Guide A: Environmental Design (7th eds), The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London.
  16. CIBSE (1997) Guide AM10: Natural Ventilation in Non-domestic Buildings. CIBSE application manual, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London.
  17. Energy Savings Trust (2006) CE184: Practical Refurbishment of Solid-Walled Houses, Energy Savings Trust, 20.
  18. Guillery, A., Donald, D. & Kendall (2004) The small house in eighteenth-century London: a social and architectural history, New Haven: Yale UniversityPress.
  19. Holt, T & Schalom, G (2012) Homes behaving badly-The HOBBS report 2012. Available via http://aecb.net/news/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/HOBBs-Final-Small-Indexed.pdf. Accessed 13 Dec. 2012.
  20. IES (2012) Integrated Environmental Solutions VE Dynamic Thermal Modelling Software version 6.4.0.10.
  21. IES-ASHRAE (2012) Integrated Environment Solutions VE ASHRAE weather database version 4.0, APLocate User Guide. Available via www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2878. Accessed 5 Aug 2012.
  22. IES-ApacheSim (2012) ApacheSim Calculation Methods-User guide. Available via
  23. IES-Part L2 (2006) Building Regulations IES-VE-SBEM User Guide. Available via www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2908. Accessed 23 Nov 2012.
  24. Jenkins, D. P (2010) The value of retrofitting carbon-saving measures into fuel poor social housing. Journal of Energy Policy 38: 832-839.
  25. Jenkins, D (2008) Energy Modelling In Traditional Scottish Houses (EMITSH). In: The technical report of historic Scotland, Technical Conservation Group. Available via http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/energy-modelling-scottish-houses.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec. 2012.
  26. Jelle, B. P., Hynd, A., Gustavsen, A., Arasteh, D., Goudey, H. & Hart, R (2012) Fenestration of today and tomorrow: A state-of-the-art review and future research opportunities. Journal of Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 96: 1-28.
  27. Loveday, D., Vadodaria, K, Haines, V., Hewitt, N., Hyde, T., Griffiths, P., Critoph, B., Eames, P., Banfill, P., Gillot, M., Darlington, R., Hall, M. & Tsang E (2011). Refurbishing the UK’s ‘hard to treat’ dwelling stock: Understanding challenges and constraints, paper presented at the CIBSE Technical Symposium, De Montford University, Leicester, 13: 1-13.
  28. Lofthouse, P (2012) The development of English semi-detached dwellings during the nineteenth century, papers from the institute of Archaeology PIA, London, 22: 83-98.
  29. London Development Agency (2009) London housing design guide-draft for consultation. Available via http://www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/data/files/Reports/londonhousingdesignguidepdf1.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2013.
  30. Mardaljevic, J., Heschong, L. & Lee, E (2009) Daylight metrics and energy savings. Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 41: 261–83.
  31. Memon, S. (2013) Design, Fabrication and Performance Analysis of Vacuum Glazing Units Fabricated with Low and High Temperature Hermetic Glass Edge Sealing Materials. PhD Thesis. Loughborough University, UK.
  32. Moorhouse, J., Littlewood, J. (2012) The Low-carbon retrofit of a UK conservation area terrace: introducing a pattern book of energy-saving details. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB 11), Springer, 12: 297-305.
  33. Mudarri, D.H (2010) Building Codes and Indoor Air Quality. US Environmental Protection Agency-Office of radiation and Indoor Air Indoor Environments Division. Available via www.epa.gov/iaq/pdfs/building_codes_and_iaq.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2012.
  34. Ochoa, C. E, Aries, M.B.C., Van-Leonen, E. J. & Hensen, J.L.M (2012). Considerations on design optimization criteria for windows providing low energy consumption and high visual comfort. Journal of Applied Energy 95: 238-245.
  35. Papakostas, K.T. & Sotiropoulos, B.A (1997) Occupational and energy behaviour patterns in Greek residences. Journal of Energy and Buildings 26: 207-213.
  36. Peacock, A., Eames, P.C., Singh, H., Berry, T.J., Banfill, P.F., Turan, S., Jenkins, D., Ahadzi, M., Bowles, G., Kane, D. & Newborough, M (2007). Reducing CO2 emissions through refurbishment of UK housing, ECEEE Summer Study. Saving Energy-Just do It. Panel 5, Energy Efficient Buildings, 5-201.
  37. Porritt, S.M., Shao, L., Cropper, P.C. & Goodier, C.I. (2010) Occupancy patterns and their effect on interventions to reduce overheating in dwellings during heat waves, In: Proceedings of Conference: Adapting to Change: New Thinking on Comfort, London: Network for Comfort and Energy Use in Buildings.
  38. Smeaton, A. C. (1867) The builder's pocket companion; containing the elements of building, surveying and architecture. Philadelphis, Baird H.
  39. Vadodaria, K., Loveday, D., Victoria, H., Mitchall, V., Mallaband, B., Bayer, S.H (2010) UK Solid-wall dwellings- thermal comfort, energy efficiency refurbishment and the user perspective-some preliminary analyses from the CALEBRE project. In: Proceedings of Conference: Adapting to Change: New Thinking on Comfort, London: Network for Comfort and Energy Use in Buildings.