Hidrokarbon Aromatik Polisiklik pada Lahan Tercemar Limbah Minyak Bumi: Tinjauan Pertumbuhan Mikro-Organisme, Proses Metabolisme dan Biodegradasi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.16.1.9-24

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Article Info
Submitted: 22-01-2018
Published: 10-06-2018
Section: Research Article
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ABSTRAK

Hidrokarbon Aromatik Polisiklik (HAP) berasal dari proses alamiah dan limbah antropogenik di lingkungan. HAP merupakan polutan di udara, tanah, dan padatan yang mengendap pada fase cair (sedimen) dan berkembang akibat pembakaran tidak lengkap material organik. Kajian ini berupa studi literatur mengenai informasi secara lebih detil tentang laju kenaikan HAP pada tanah, gambaran umum proses metabolisme, proses biodegradasi HAP melalui keterlibatan mikroorganisme, dan alternatif pengolahan sebagai media teknologi penunjang aktivitas proses degradasi. Proses degradasi HAP dan substrat hidrofobik digunakan untuk membatasi jumlah fase cair terlarut melalui sorbsi, kristalin, dan non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) sehingga HAP terlarut menjadi tidak tersedia. Laju peningkatan HAP di dalam tanah terbagi atas tiga fase, yaitu fase eksponensial, fase lanjutan dengan pertumbuhan pseudo-linear, dan fase pseudo-stasioner pada kondisi tidak ideal berdasarkan ciri akses bakteri tersedia dalam jumlah tidak terbatas, dan transportasi substrat adalah homogen. Pada media heterogen, seperti tanah, HAP diserap dalam partikel organik pada pori-pori dengan ukuran kecil sehingga bakteri tanah tidak dapat mengakses HAP. Pada kasus pencemaran dalam skala besar, HAP akan berbentuk semacam tar droplet sehingga membatasi bakteri untuk mendegradasi HAP. Selain bakteri, jenis organisme dan mikroorganisme spesifik pendegradasi HAP dapat ditemukan pada jamur (fungi), cyanobacteria, dan alga.

Kata kunci: biodegradasi, hidrokarbon aromatik polisiklik, mikroorganisme, proses metabolisme.

ABSTRACT

Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are derived from natural processes and the anthropogenic wastes in the environment. PAHs are pollutants found in the air, soil, and sediments which are developed due to incomplete combustion of the organic materials. This review provides a more detail literature study regarding the microbial growth, the metabolic process, and PAHs microbial biodegradation processes overview. The process of PAHs and the hydrophobic substrate degradation is applied to limit the amount of dissolved aqueous phase through sorption, crystalline, and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) so that the dissolved PAHs are no longer available. microbial growth on PAHs as the sole carbon source can be divided into three phases which are the exponential phase, the advance phase with pseudo-linear growth, and pseudo-stationery phase in a non-ideal condition based on the characteristic of the unlimited bacterial access and the homogenous substrate transport. In the heterogeneous medium, such as soil, PAHs are absorbed into the organic particles of small sized pores so that the PAHs become inaccessible for the soil bacteria. In large scale pollution, the PAHs are in the form of tar droplets which limit the access for soil bacteria to degrade the PAHs. Other than bacteria, the specific organisms and microorganisms to degrade PAHs are found in fungi, cyanobacteria, and algae.

Keywords: biodegradation, growth rate, metabolic process, microbial, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Citation: Kurniawan A., Wirasembada, Y.C., Razaad, I.M.N., Novriansyah, A., Rafi, M., Effendi, A.J.(2018). Hidrokarbon Aromatik Polisiklik pada Lahan Tercemar Limbah Minyak Bumi: Tinjauan Pertumbuhan Mikro-Organisme, Proses Metabolisme dan Biodegradasi, Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 16(1), 9-24, doi:10.14710/jil.16.1.9-24

Keywords

biodegradation; growth rate; metabolic process; microbial; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  1. Allen Kurniawan  Orcid Scopus Sinta
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
  2. Yanuar Chandra Wirasembada 
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
  3. Indah Mutiara Ningtyas Razaad 
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
  4. Adi Novriansyah 
    Jurusan Teknik Perminyakan, Universitas Islam Riau., Indonesia
  5. Mohamad Rafi  Sinta
    Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
  6. Agus Jatnika Effendi  Sinta
    Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB)., Indonesia