Potensi Chlorella sp. dan Pseudomonas sp. dari Areal Tambang Emas sebagai Mikroorganisme Potensial Pereduksi Merkuri

*Liswara Neneng orcid  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Ardianoor Ardianoor  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Hepryandi Luwyk Djanas Usup  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Chaidir Adam orcid  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Zakaria Zakaria  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Arintiana Ghazella  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Srininta Br Perangin-angin  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Vivin Alvianita  -  Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia
Received: 29 Nov 2020; Published: 30 Nov 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.18.3.617-625 View
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Abstract
Kawasan hutan maupun sungai-sungai di Kalimantan Tengah, telah terdampak akibat kegiatan penambangan emas skala kecil (ilegal) selama puluhan tahun. Para penambang menggunakan merkuri sebagai bahan kimia utama dalam prosesekstraksi emas, dan setiap tahun melepaskan tidak kurang dari 1.000ton bahan berbahaya ini ke lingkungan, baik udara maupun air. Pencemaran merkuri di lingkungan perairan, dapat dikurangi atau dihilangkan dengan menggunakan sekelompok mikroorganisme yang mampu untuk mereduksi merkuri yang disebut dengan bioremediasi. Metode bioremediasi lebih ekonomis, karena mikroorganisme memiliki kemampuan untuk mendegradasi kontaminan ke dalam bentuk yang tidak berbahaya. Bakteri dan alga yang hidup di perairan sekitar tambang emas diduga memiliki kemampuan resistensi terhadap kontaminan logam berat merkuri. Sampel bakteri dan alga yang diambil dari sekitar tambang diseleksi dengan perlakuan merkuri (Hg) untuk mengetahui potensinya sebagai bioremediator logam berat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk Eksplorasi dan Optimasi Mikroorganisme Potensial untuk Bioremediasi Merkuri dari Areal Tambang Emas di Sungai Kahayan. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan di 5 titik yang teridiri 3 titik di areal tambang (T1, T2, T3), 1 titik di hulu tambang (HU), dan 1 titik di hilir tambang (HI). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) mikroalga potensial bioremediasi merkuri dari areal tambang emas sungai Kahayan termasuk ke dalam genus Chlorella dan mampu bertahan dengan perlakuan konsentrasi Hg sampai 7 ppm; dan (2) bakteri potensial bioremediasi merkuri dari areal tambang emas sungai Kahayan mampu bertahan dengan perlakuan konsentrasi Hg sampai 13 ppm yang terdiri dari 3 isolat, yakni I1 (bakteri dari sampel air), I2 (bakteri dari sampel air), dan I3 (bakteri dari sampel sedimen). Ketiga isolat bakteri potensial termasuk ke dalam kelompok bakteri Gram Negatif. Isolat 1 dan isolat 3 merupakan spesies Pseudomonas sp. berdasarkan kemampuannya menghasilkan pigmen berwarna kuning pada media cair.

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Keywords: Bioremediasi, Logam Berat, Merkuri, Mikroorganisme, Bakteri, Mikroalga, Chlorella, Pseudomonas

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