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Komposisi Rayap Dapat Menentukan Tingkat Ketergangguan Habitat : Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Dharmasraya Provinsi Sumatera Barat

1Program Studi Agroekoteknologi Jurusan Budidaya Perkebunan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Andalas, Indonesia

2Program Studi Entomologi Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian IPB University, Indonesia

3Program Studi Entomologi Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian IPB University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Received: 12 Jan 2022; Revised: 11 Mar 2022; Accepted: 30 Mar 2022; Available online: 12 Apr 2022; Published: 4 Jul 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

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Abstract

Transformasi habitat seperti pengalihan hutan alam ke bentuk habitat lain mempengaruhi aktivitas kehidupan organisme penting di dalamnya. Rayap merupakan organisme penting yang mempunyai peran sebagai dekomposer. Oleh sebab itu perlu dikaji dari komposisinya pada habitat-habitat dengan tingkat ketergangguan yang bervariasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari komposisi rayap pada beberapa tingkat ketergangguan habitat. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada empat tipe penggunaan lahan di Kabupaten Dharmasraya Provinsi Sumatera Barat, yaitu hutan alam, hutan kebun, perkebunan kelapa sawit dan permukiman. Penelitian dilakukan dengan cara observasi di lapangan dan identifikasi spesies rayap di laboratorium. Untuk observasi, dilakukan di tiap habitat dengan petak pengamatan berukuran 50 m x 10 m. Satu petak pengamatan dibagi dalam sub petak pengamatan dengan ukuran 5 m x 5 m sehingga diperoleh 20 sub petak pengamatan. Setiap sub petak pengamatan dilakukan survei selama 30 menit, sehingga total untuk satu petak pengamatan adalah 600 menit atau 10 jam. Identifikasi rayap dilakukan di laboratorium dengan berpedoman pada beberapa kunci identifikasi spesies rayap. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan 14 spesies rayap pada beberapa habitat di Kabupaten Dharmasraya. Hasil analisis terhadap feeding group, indeks keanekaragaman, indeks kekayaan dan dominansinya menunjukkan habitat hutan alam dan hutan kebun cenderung memiliki kedekatan komposisi rayap yang lebih dekat daripada komposisi rayap yang ada di perkebunan kelapa sawit dan permukiman, kemudian komposisi rayap di perkebunan kelapa sawit dan permukiman memiliki tingkat kesamaan yang lebih dekat pula.

ABSTRACT

The transformation of habitats such as natural forests to other forms of habitat affects the life activities of important organisms in them. Termites are important organisms that have a role as decomposers. Therefore, it is necessary to study its composition in habitats with varying levels of disturbance. This study aims to study the composition of termites at several levels of habitat disturbance. This research was conducted on four types of land use in Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra Province, namely natural forest, secondary forest, oil palm plantation, and settlement. The research was conducted by observing in the field and finding termite species in the laboratory. For observations, conducted in each habitat with an observation plot measuring 50 m x 10 m. One observation plot in the observation sub-plot with a size of 5 m x 5 m in order to obtain 20 observation sub-plots. Each sub-plot was observed for 30 minutes, so that the total observations in one plot were 600 minutes or 10 hours. Termite identification is carried out in the laboratory based on several key termite discoveries. In this study, 14 species of termites were found in several habitats in Dharmasraya Regency. The results of the analysis of food groups, diversity index, richness index and dominance showed that natural forest and secondary forest tended to have closer proximity than the composition of termites in oil palm plantations and settlement and the composition of termites in oil palm plantations and settlement had high levels of even closer similarities.

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Keywords: composition; termites; land use type; disturbed habitat

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