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Pengaruh Penambahan Gliserol Mentah Limbah Industri Biodiesel Terhadap Produksi Biogas dari Kotoran Sapi Menggunakan Anaerobic Digester Sistem Batch

1Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Andalas, Indonesia

2Program Pascasarjana Universitas Andalas, Indonesia

Received: 18 Feb 2022; Revised: 4 Mar 2022; Accepted: 10 Mar 2022; Available online: 18 Mar 2022; Published: 4 Jul 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

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Abstract

Biogas adalah gas yang dihasilkan oleh aktivitas anaerobik dalam menguraikan bahan organik dengan kandungan utama metana (CH4) dan karbon diokasida (CO2). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh gliserol mentah dengan campuran kotoran sapi dalam memproduksi biogas. Digester menggunakan sistem batch skala laboratorium. Variasi pada penelitian ini adalah campuran kotoran sapi dengan penambahan gliserol mentah sebanyak 0, 4, 8, dan 12%. Semua variasi dengan volume total 350 mL. Pengukuran volume biogas dilakukan setiap hari. Pengukuran konsentrasi CH4 dan CO2 diukur menggunakan alat Geotech Biogas 5000 analyzer. Parameter yang diukur adalah COD, BOD, TS dan VS dan untuk pH diukur di awal serta di akhir proses. Suhu lingkungan diukur setiap hari dengan interval waktu selama 30 menit menggunakan alat Weather Station model PCE-FWS 20. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk memproduksi biogas adalah 14 hari. Volume biogas tertinggi adalah 836 mL, pada variasi penambahan gliserol mentah 12%. Gliserol mentah yang ditambahkan memiliki COD 475,2 mg/L, BOD 133,22 mg/L, TS 20% dan VS 14,8%. Konsentrasi CH4 tertinggi juga didapatkan dari variasi penambahan gliserol mentah 12% yaitu 44,1%. Sedangkan volume biogas terendah adalah 292 mL pada digester tanpa penambahan gliserol mentah. Konsentrasi CH4 terendah didapatkan pada variasi penambahan gliserol mentah 8% yaitu 15,5%. Identifikasi bakteri yang berperan dalam proses produksi biogas berdasarkan uji biokimia dengan Bergey’s manual adalah genus Bacillus. Bakteri ini berperan dalam proses pendegradasi bahan organik yang ada di dalam digester. 

ABSTRACT

Biogas is a gas produced by anaerobic activity in decomposing organic matter with the main content of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This study aims to analyze the effect of crude glycerol with a mixture of cow dung in producing biogas. The digester used in this research was a laboratory-scale batch system. The variation in this study was a mixture of cow dung with the addition of 0, 4, 8, and 12% crude glycerol. All variations with a total volume of 350 mL. The measurement of the biogas volume was carried out every day. Measurements of CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured using a Geotech Biogas 5000 analyzer. The COD, BOD, TS, and VS, and pH parameters were measured at the beginning and the end of the process. With parameters COD 475.2 mg/L, BOD 133.22 mg/L, TS 20%, and VS 14.8%. The ambient temperature was measured every 30 minutes using a PCE-FWS 20 Weather Station model. The results showed that the length of time needed to produce biogas was 14 days. The highest biogas volume was 836 mL, when 12% cured glycerol was added. The highest CH4 concentration of 44,1% was also obtained from variations in the addition of 12% crude glycerol. The lowest biogas volume of 292 mL was obtained from the absence of crude glycerol in the reactor. The lowest CH4 concentration was found in the variation of the addition of 8% crude glycerol, namely 15.5%. Identification of bacteria that play a role in the biogas production process based on biochemical tests using Bergey's manual is the Bacillus genus. These bacteria contribute in these bacteria contribute in organic matter degradation inside the digester.

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Keywords: Bacillus; batch digester; biogas; gliserol mentah; konsentrasi CH4.
Funding: Universitas Andalas

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