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Mekanisme Biosorpsi Senyawa Polutan Organik Persisten (POPs) dalam Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Farmasi: Suatu Review

1Program Doktor Teknik Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

2Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan, Universitas Pelita Bangsa, Indonesia

Received: 5 Jul 2022; Revised: 12 Feb 2023; Accepted: 2 Mar 2023; Available online: 27 Mar 2023; Published: 5 Apr 2023.
Editor(s): Budi Warsito

Citation Format:
Abstract
Industri farmasi menghasilkan senyawa aktif farmasi yang bersifat persisten dan berbahaya bagi lingkungan dan makhluk hidup jika memasuki badan air. Pengolahan air limbah secara konvensional belum mampu menyisihkan senyawa aktif farmasi dengan baik. Review artikel ini dilakukan karena semakin meningkatnya populasi penduduk di Indonesia maka semakin meningkat pula produksi dan penggunaan produk obat-obatan dari industri farmasi. Pelepasan kandungan mikropolutan obat-obatan yang bersifat persisten ke dalam saluran pembuangan air adalah sekitar ng ~ µg/L secara terus menerus mengalir ke lingkungan dan air limbah akan membahayakan kesehatan makhluk hidup dan lingkungan. Senyawa aktif farmasi yang bersifat persisten terdiri dari analgesik dan antiinflamasi, antibiotik, antidiabetik, antihipertensi, beta-blocker, diuretik, lipid regulator, obat psikiatri, reseptor antagonis, hormon, beta-agonis, antineoplastik, produk topikal, antiseptik, agen kontras dan agen anti kanker. Artikel ini mereview mekanisme biosorpsi beberapa biosorben yang digunakan dalam menurunkan senyawa POPs dalam pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi yang terdiri dari biomassa dari limbah pertanian dan limbah industri. Mekanisme biosorpsi senyawa POPs dalam pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi meliputi interaksi elektrostatik, interaksi ikatan π-π elektron donor akseptor, ikatan hidrogen, pengisian pori, interaksi hidrofobik, atraksi dipol permanen, pertukaran ion, interaksi asam basa Lewis, gaya Van der Waals, dan fotodegradasi. Arah pengembangan penelitian berikutnya yaitu pengembangan biosorben dari limbah yang dimodifikasi kimia untuk mengoptimalkan kapasitas biosorpsi senyawa POPs dalam pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi.
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Keywords: limbah cair, industri farmasi, biosorpsi, polutan organik persisten, senyawa aktif farmasi

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