Studi kualitatif faktor yang mempengaruhi orang tua dalam pemberian makan anak autis

Rusda Camelia -  Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Hartanti Sandi Wijayanti -  Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
*Choirun Nissa -  Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Received: 7 Feb 2019; Published: 14 Jun 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Supp. File(s):
Perilaku Makan Anak Autis dan Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Orang Tua dalam Pemberian Makan Anak
Subject autism, children, quallitative, feeding, eating behavior
Type Research Results
  Download (87KB)    Indexing metadata
Statistics: 197 142
Abstract

Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have problem in metabolism which makes them have limited food intake. The implementation of the diet is influenced by eating behaviors in children with ASD and parents in feeding children.

Objective: This study was to analyze eating behaviors and factors influencing parents on child’s feeding.

Methods: This quallitative study was using in-dept interviews to parents as informants. Observations related to children's eating habits and behaviors also conducted in this study. FFQ was also conducted to measure gluten and casein consumptions. The retrieval of subjects through purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria, there was 8 children with ASD aged 6-14 years old with their care taker as informans who were willing to join this study.

Results: Children with ASD have unique food preferention and able to expres hunger and satiety amid the limitatins of social interaction. Gluten intake is more often consumed (26,63 times/week) than casein (5,25 times/week). 25% parents are implementating the diet and based on knowledges, obey the doctor or terapies, improve children’s behavioral experiences after diet, motivation, skills in processing food diets, purchasing power, and family supports. Parents are not implementating the diet because of children’s responses, informant’s worries, sibling behaviors who offer non-dietary food, limited dietary food in arround, and limited time to process dietary food.

Conclusion: Eating behaviors’s subject is related to parent’s feeding. Feeding by informants are influenced by children’s responses, knowledges, attitudes, experiences and motivations, skills, purchasing power, availability of food, sibling behaviors, time, and family supports. Knowledges, motivations, and family support were the most important factors in feeding children with autism.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords
autism; children; quallitative; feeding; eating behavior

Article Metrics:

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth ed. Fifth. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.
  2. Christensen DL, Baio J, Van Naarden Braun K, Bilder D, Charles J, Constantino JN, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years–autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;65(1):1–23.
  3. Mashabi NA, Tajudin NR. Pengetahuan gizi ibu dan pola makan anak autis. J Makara Kesehat UI. 2009;13(2):88–90.
  4. Adams JB. Summary of biomedical treatments for autism. ARI Publ 40. 2007.
  5. Hsu C, Lin DCY, Chen C, Wang C, Wong AMK. The effects of a gluten and casein-free diet in children with autism : a case report. Chang Gung Med J.2009;32(4):459–65.
  6. Almatsier S. Prinsip dasar ilmu gizi. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pusat Utama; 2009.
  7. Adams JB. Summary of dietary, nutritional, and medical treatments for autism – based on over 150 published research studies. ARI Publ 40. 2013.
  8. Ramadayanti S, Margawati A. Perilaku pemilihan makanan dan diet bebas gluten bebas kasein pada anak autis. J Nutr Coll. 2013;2(1):35–43.
  9. Demand A, Johnson C, Foldes E. Psychometric properties of the brief autism mealtime behaviors inventory. Autism Dev Disord. 2016;45(9):2667–73.
  10. Diolordi L, Balzo V del, Bernabei P, Vitiello V, Donini LM. Eating habits and dietary patterns in children with autism. Eat and Weight Disord. 2014; 19(3):295-301.
  11. Zobel-Lachiusa J, Andrianopoulos M V., Mailloux Z, Cermak SA. Sensory differences and mealtime behavior in children with autism. Am J Ocupational Ther. 2015;69(5):1–8.
  12. Ranjan S, Nasser J a. Nutritional status of individuals with autism spectrum disorders : do we know enough ? Adv Nutr. 2015;5(6):397–407.
  13. Bandini LG, Anderson SE, Curtin C, Cermak S, Evans EW, Scampini R, et al. Food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children. J Pediatr. 2010;157(2):259–64.
  14. Mumpuni SDP. Gambaran perilaku picky eater dan faktor yang melatarbelakanginya pada siswa PAUD Kasih Ananda Bekasi Tahun 2012. [Skripsi]. Depok: Universitas Indonesia; 2012.
  15. Kurnia Sari Y, Ashra F, Sari D. Hubungan peran orang tua terhadap kepatuhan terapi diet gluten free casein free (GFCF) pada anak autisme di sekolah luar biasa (SLB) khusus autis Al-Ikhlas Bukittinggi tahun 2014. J Kesehatan. 2015;6(1).
  16. Sofia AD. Kepatuhan orang tua dalam menerapkan terapi diet gluten free casein free pada anak penyandang autisme di Yayasan Pelita Hafizh dan SLBN Cileunyi Bandung. [Skripsi]. Bandung: Universitas Padjadjaran; 2012.
  17. Apriani Z. Pengaruh diet gluten free dan casein free terhadap perilaku anak autis di Makassar. [Skripsi]. Makassar: Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar; 2016.
  18. Khomsan A. Pangan dan gizi untuk kesehatan. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada; 2004.
  19. Quinn PM. Metode evaluasi kualitatif. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar; 2009.
  20. Fauziyah SN, Ardiaria M, Wijayanti HS. Hubungan frekuensi konsumsi gluten dan kasein dengan status gizi anak autisme. J Nutr Coll. 2017;6(3):262–7.
  21. Curtin C, Anderson SE, Must A, Bandini L. The prevalence of obesity in children with autism: a secondary data analysis using nationally representative data from the national survey of children’s health. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10(11):1–5.
  22. Curtin C, Anderson SE, Must A, Bandini L. The prevalence of obesity in children with autism : a secondary data analysis using nationally representative data from the National Survey of Children ’ s Health. 2010;1–4.
  23. Rahayu S. Gambaran perilaku picky eater, pola makan, dan status gizi anak autis di SLB Negeri Semarang. [Skripsi]. Surakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta; 2016.
  24. Cermak SA. Food selectivity and sensory sensitivity in children with spectrum disorders. Am Diet Assos. 2010;110(2):238–46.
  25. Schreck KA, Williams K, Smith AF. A comparison of eating behaviors between children with and without autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34(4):433–438.
  26. Barbier S. A Qualitative Assessment of Eating Behaviors in Adults With Autism. [Tesis]. Illinois: Illinois State University; 2015.
  27. Curtin C. Prevalence of overweight in children and adolescent with attention deficit hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorder : a chart review. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:48.
  28. Sari ID. Nutrisi pada pasien autis. CDK. 2009;36(2):89–93.
  29. Notoatmodjo S. Pendidikan dan perilaku kesehatan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara; 2003. p. 21-40.
  30. Sediaoetama AD. Ilmu gizi untuk mahasiswa dan profesi. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat; 1991.
  31. Suwoyo. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi status gizi anak autis di sekolah kebutuhan khusus kota Kediri. J Ilmu Kesehat. 2017;5(2):115–27.
  32. Notoatmodjo S. Ilmu Perilaku Kesehatan. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta; 2014. p 124.
  33. Noor M, Indriati G, Elita V. Pengalaman ibu dalam merawat anak autis di sekolah. JOM PSIK. 2014;1(2):1–12.
  34. Laake DG, Compart PJ. The ADHD and Autism Nutritional Supplement Handbook : The Cutting-Edge Biomedical Approach to Treating the Underlying Deficiencies and Symptoms of ADHD and Autism. Beverly: Fair Winds; 2013.
  35. Li Q, Han Y, Dy ABC, Hagerman RJ. The gut microbiota and autism spectrum disorders. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11(April):1–14.
  36. Lázaro CP, Pondé MP. Narratives of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders: focus on eating behavior. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2017;39(3):180–7.
  37. Azwar S. Sikap Manusia: Teori dan Pengukurannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar; 2007.