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The Association between Sleep Duration, Breakfast Routine and Nutritional Status in Indonesian Adolescents during COVID-19 Pandemic

Muhammad Nadzir Mushoffa Suja’I  -  Faculty of Public Health, Mulawarman University, Indonesia
Reny Noviasty orcid scopus  -  Faculty of Public Health, Mulawarman University, Indonesia
Eva R Kurniawati orcid scopus  -  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Netherlands
*Ratih Wirapuspita Wisnuwardani orcid scopus publons  -  Faculty of Public Health, Mulawarman University, Indonesia
Received: 11 Jan 2022; Published: 1 Jun 2022.

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Abstract

Background: Adolescents are susceptible to nutritional status issues, both undernutrition, and over-nutrition, becoming a public health concern promptly. There were 912 junior and high-school adolescents who were obese and 249 high-school adolescents who had low body mass index (BMI) in Samarinda City. During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents experienced changes in sleep duration, and many adolescents were skipping breakfast. Sleep duration and breakfast can affect the nutritional condition of adolescents.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between sleep duration, breakfast routine and BMI in Samarinda, Indonesian adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials and Methods: A total of 340 adolescents was sampled and assessed using a cross-sectional technique to ascertain their sleep duration, breakfast routine, and nutritional status. Nutritional status was classified based on BMI-for-age and z-value BMI. The amount of sleep duration was calculated by the average wake time and sleep time. Breakfast routine was obtained from seven days of breakfast before 9 am. Then, using multivariate analyses were tested for sleep duration, BMI z-value, breakfast routine, and nutritional status.

Results: This study revealed that 68.5% had good nutrition, with an average sleep duration of 8 hours (65.9%) and irregular breakfast (59.1%). Nutritional status was significantly influenced by breakfast routine (p=0.044), gender (p<0.001), and mother’s employment (p<0.001). A cubic association was found between sleep duration and BMI (p=0.045); and a significant association between breakfast routines and BMI, independent from age, gender, ethnicity, school.

Conclusion: Adolescents must consider their sleep duration and the frequency and composition of their breakfast. Future study in the longitudinal study is needed to explore in more detail.

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Keywords: Sleep Duration; Breakfast; Nutritional Status; Adolescent

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