Keberadaan Perokok dalam Rumah sebagai Faktor Risiko Kejadian Pneumonia pada Anak: Suatu Kajian Sistematik

Rahma Desta Kusumawardani  -  Mahasiswa S-1 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
*Suhartono Suhartono scopus  -  Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Budiyono Budiyono scopus  -  Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Received: 6 Jun 2020; Revised: 19 Sep 2020; Accepted: 23 Sep 2020; Published: 1 Oct 2020; Available online: 25 Sep 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.19.2.152-159 View
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Abstract

Latar belakang: Pneumonia merupakan penyebab utama kematian pada anak di dunia. Salah satu faktor risiko yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian adalah adanya pajanan asap rokok lingkungan (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) yang berasal dari adanya perokok dalam rumah. Kajian sistematis ini bertujuan menggambarkan hubungan keberadaan perokok dalam rumah dengan kejadian pneumonia pada anak.

Metode: Penelusuran artikel dilakukan melalui database Portal Garuda Indonesia, PubMed, Scopus, dan ProQuest, pada bulan Mei 2020. Kriteria inklusi adalah penelitian dengan desain studi observasional dan fokus pada hubungan pajanan asap rokok dengan pneumonia pada anak, yang dipublikasikan antara tahun 2000-2020.

Hasil: Terdapat 8 artikel yang dikaji. Salah satu artikel melakukan pengukuran CCR (Cotinine/creatinine ratio) urin. Faktor terkait pajanan asap rokok yang terbukti berkaitan dengan peningkatan risiko pneumonia adalah adanya anggota keluarga yang merokok, lokasi merokok berada di dalam rumah, adanya bau tembakau di dalam ruangan, pajanan asap rokok pada masa prenatal terutama ibu yang merokok pada masa kehamilan, dan usia anak pada saat terpajan asap rokok.

Simpulan: Keberadaan perokok dalam rumah meningkatkan risiko pneumonia pada anak, dengan kisaran 1,2-6,7

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The existence of smokers in the home as a risk factor of pneumonia in children:  A systematic review

Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. One of the risk factors that need an attention is exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) from the smoker in the house. The purpose of this systematic study is to describe relationship between the presence of smokers in the house and pneumonia in children.

Methods: The literature search was carried out through the database of Portal Garuda Indonesia, PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest, which were conducted in May 2020. The inclusion criteria are observational research designs and focus on the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke and pneumonia in children that were published between 2000 and 2020.

Results: Eight articles were selected for review. One of the articles has measured urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio (CCR). Factors related to the exposure to tobacco smoke which is proven to be associated with an increase risk of pneumonia in children were the presence of family members who smoke, location of smoking in the house, the smell of tobacco in the room, exposure to tobacco smoke during the prenatal period especially maternal smoking, and the age of the child when exposed to tobacco smoke.

Conclusion: The presence of smokers in the home increases the risk of pneumonia in children, with a ranges between 1.2-6.7

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords: Perokok dalam rumah; Faktor risiko; Pneumonia pada anak

Article Metrics:

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  19. Hersey P, Prendergast D, Edwards A. Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system: Follow‐up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking. Med J Aust. 1983;2(9):425–429
  20. Ujunwa FA, Ezeonu CT. Risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections in under‑five children in enugu Southeast Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(1):95–9. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.126610
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  23. Suryatama H, Fitriani F, Andarini S, Susanto AD, Hudoyo A. Kadar kotinin urin dan CO ekspirasi pada perempuan dewasa yang terpajan asap rokok di lingkugan rumah. J Respirologi Indones. 2019;39(3):140–53
  24. Abdullah N, Al-Junid SH, Looi ML, Chin SF, Haniff EAM, Zakaria SZS, et al. Validation of self-reported smoker and second hand smoke exposure by urinary cotinine within the Malaysian cohort project. J Biomed Transl Res. 2019;5(1):15–22. doi: 10.14710/jbtr.v5i1.3971
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  26. Henderson FW, Reid HF, Morris R, Wang OL, Hu PC, Helms RW, et al. Home air nicotine levels and urinary cotinine excretion in preschool children. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;140(1):197–201. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm/140.1.197
  27. Keskinoglu P, Cimrin D, Aksakoglu G. Relationship between cotinine, lower respiratory tract infecion, and eosinophil cationic protein in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(5):455–9. doi: 10.1007/s00431-006-0263-4
  28. Joanna Briggs Institute. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools for use in JBI systematic reviews. Joanna Briggs Institute; 2017
  29. Suzuki M, Thiem VD, Yanai H, Matsubayashi T, Yoshida LM, Tho LH, et al. Association of environmental tobacco smoking exposure with an increased risk of hospital admissions for pneumonia in children under 5 years of age in Vietnam. Thorax. 2009;64(6):484–9
  30. Chen CH, Wen HJ, Chen PC, Lin SJ, Chiang TL, Hsieh IC, et al. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for infantile pneumonia in a representative birth cohort. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140(7):1277–85
  31. Alnur RD, Ismail D, Padmawati RS. Kebiasaan merokok keluarga serumah dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita di kabupaten Bantul tahun 2015. Ber Kedokt Masy. 2017;33(3):119–124
  32. Imanian M, Ghasemzadeh MJ, Zarepur E, Zarepur A, Sarbandi FR. The Relationship between Pneumonia with parental smoking in children under 10 years old: a case-control study. Int J Pediatr. 2018;6(6):7791–6
  33. Sismanlar Eyuboglu T, Aslan AT, Kose M, Pekcan S, Hangul M, Gulbahar O, et al. Passive smoking and disease severity in childhood pneumonia under 5 years of age. J Trop Pediatr. 2019;1–7
  34. Ardila A, Noraida N, Erminawati E. Perilaku merokok orangtua dengan kejadian ISPA pneumonia pada balita. J Kesehat Lingkung J dan Apl Tek Kesehat Lingkung. 2019;16(1):707–14
  35. Larasati F, Hargono A. Perbedaan risiko pneumonia berdasarkan pola asuh dan paparan asap rokok. Indones J Heal Promot Heal Educ. 2019;7(2):163–72
  36. Zhuge Y, Qian H, Zheng X, Huang C, Zhang Y, Li B, et al. Effects of parental smoking and indoor tobacco smoke exposure on respiratory outcomes in children. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):1–9
  37. PDPI. Pneumonia komuniti:Pedoman diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia; 2003
  38. Kusumawati I. Hubungan antara status merokok anggota keluarga dengan lama pengobatan ISPA balita di Kecamatan Jenawi. Universitas Sebelas Maret; 2010
  39. Hersey P, Prendergast D, Edwards A. Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system: Follow‐up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking. Med J Aust. 1983;2(9):425–429
  40. Ujunwa FA, Ezeonu CT. Risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections in under‑five children in enugu Southeast Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(1):95–9
  41. Taylor B, Wadsworth J. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract illness in early life. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62(8):786–91
  42. Mishra V, Smith KR, Retherford RD. Effects of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on acute respiratory infections in young Indian children. Popul Environ. 2005;26(5):375–96
  43. Suryatama H, Fitriani F, Andarini S, Susanto AD, Hudoyo A. Kadar kotinin urin dan CO ekspirasi pada perempuan dewasa yang terpajan asap rokok di lingkugan rumah. J Respirologi Indones. 2019;39(3):140–53
  44. Abdullah N, Al-Junid SH, Looi ML, Chin SF, Haniff EAM, Zakaria SZS, et al. Validation of self-reported smoker and second hand smoke exposure by urinary cotinine within the Malaysian cohort project. J Biomed Transl Res. 2019;5(1):15–22
  45. Keskinoglu P, Cimrin D, Aksakoglu G. Which cut-off level of urine cotinine:creatinine ratio (CCR) should be used to determine passive smoking prevalence in children in community based studies? Tob Control. 2007;16(5):358–9
  46. Henderson FW, Reid HF, Morris R, Wang OL, Hu PC, Helms RW, et al. Home air nicotine levels and urinary cotinine excretion in preschool children. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;140(1):197–201
  47. Keskinoglu P, Cimrin D, Aksakoglu G. Relationship between cotinine, lower respiratory tract infecion, and eosinophil cationic protein in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(5):455–9

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