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Evaluasi Daya Tampung Beban Pencemaran Air Sungai Menggunakan Pendekatan Metode Neraca Massa

Department of Geography Education, Universitas Jember. Jl. Kalimantan No. 37, Kampus Bumi Tegalboto, Jember, East Java 68121, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Sungai Bedadung merupakan sungai utama di Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Bedadung yang mengalir di tengah wilayah perkotaan dan berpotensi mengalami pencemaran akibat aktifitas manusia melalui pembuangan limbah domestik, industri, dan pertanian. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik kualitas air sungai dan daya tampung beban pencemaran air di Sungai Bedadung Hulu.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif dengan analisis korelasional dan metode neraca massa. Teknik pengambilan sampel kualitas air dengan cara grab sampling pada delapan segmen yang terdiri dari 8 sampel sumber nirtitik (non-point source) dan 1 sampel titik (point source) pada kondisi debit rendah di musim kemarau. Parameter yang diuji adalah kualitas fisika air yaitu suhu, pH, Daya Hantar Listrik (DHL) dan Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), serta kualitas kimiawi air yaitu Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), dan Dissolved Oxygen (DO).

Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa seluruh parameter kualitas air Sungai bedadung hulu berdasarkan analisis metode neraca massa memiliki nilai yang tidak melebihi standar baku mutu kualitas air kelas II Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 22 Tahun 2021. Beban Pencemaran Aktual (BPA) untuk kualitas kimiawi air yaitu BOD, COD, dan DO masing-masing sebesar 651,10 kg/hari; 80009,47 kg/hari; dan 3091,70 kg/hari.

Simpulan: Nilai Beban Pencemaran Aktual (BPA) ketiga parameter berada di bawah batas Beban Pencemaran Maksimum (BPM) sehingga masih memiliki selisih daya tampung untuk dapat menerima beban pencemaran. Upaya pengelolaan air limbah dan menjaga kelestarian lingkungan masih diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas air di Sungai Bedadung hulu.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Evaluation of River Water Pollution Load Capacity Using Mass Balance Method Approach

Background: The Bedadung River is the main river in the Bedadung watershed that flows in the middle of urban areas and can experience pollution due to human activities through domestic, industrial, and agricultural waste disposal. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of river water quality and load capacity of water pollution in the Upper Bedadung River.

Method: This study uses a qualitative descriptive approach with correlational analysis and mass balance methods. The water quality sampling technique was taken through grab sampling on eight segments consisting of 8 non-point source samples and 1 point source sample at low discharge conditions in the dry season. The parameters tested were the physical quality of water, namely temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity (DHL) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), as well as the chemical quality of water, namely Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO).

Result: The results showed that all the water quality parameters of the upstream Bedadung River based on the mass balance method analysis had a value that did not exceed the class II water quality standards of the Republic of Indonesia Government Regulation Number 22 of 2021. Actual Pollution Load (BPA) for the chemical quality of water, namely BOD, COD, and DO each of 651.10 kg/day; 80009.47 kg/day; and 3091.70 kg/day.

Conclusion: The BPA value of the three parameters is below the Maximum Pollution Load (BPM) limit so that it still has a difference in the capacity to accept the pollution load. Efforts to manage wastewater and preserve the environment are still needed to improve water quality in the upstream Bedadung River.

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Keywords: Kualitas air sungai; beban pencemaran; metode neraca massa; Sungai Bedadung
Funding: Universitas Jember under contract Hibah Kelompok Riset 2020 under contract SK Rektor No 11872/UN25/LT/2020

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