Kualitas Mikrobiologis Dan Higiene Pedagang Lawar Di Kawasan Pariwisata Kabupaten Gianyar

*Sang Gede Purnama  -  Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Indonesia
Herry Purnama  -  Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Indonesia
I Made Subrata  -  Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Indonesia
Received: 22 May 2017; Published: 7 Nov 2017.
Open Access Copyright 2017 JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

Citation Format:
Abstract

Latar belakang dan tujuan: Kualitas mikrobiologi makanan masih menjadi masalah pada keamanan pangan. Di Bali banyak terdapat pedagang makanan khas tradisional, salah satunya adalah lawar. Lawar tidak hanya disukai oleh masyarakat lokal, tetapi juga oleh wisatawan mancanegara. Pemeriksaan mikrobiologi terhadap lawar perlu dilakukan agar sesuai dengan standar kualitas makanan yang dapat mencegah terjadinya kasus traveler’s diarrhea. Dalam mempersiapkan makanan khas tradisional sebagai food tourism maka diperlukan kajian mengenai kualitas pangan. Hal ini untuk memenuhi keamanan pangan sehingga mampu bersaing di pasar global.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologis dan higiene pedagang lawar di kawasan pariwisata Kabupaten Gianyar, Bali serta proses pengolahan yang baik.

Metode:  Penelitian ini merupakan studi analitik cross sectional dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif menggunakan alat ukur pedoman observasi, wawancara dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik random sampling dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 44 penjamah makanan dan 44 sampel lawar. Wawancaara mendalam dilakukan pada 6 orang pedagang lawar untuk mengetahui proses pengelolaan lawar yang baik. Pemeriksaan E.Coli pada sampel lawar dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fak. Kedokteran dengan Total Plate Count (TPC) dan Most Probable Number (MPN) yaitu perkiraan jumlah kuman yang mendekati per 100 ml air.

Hasil: Proporsi sampel lawar dengan E. coli positif dijumpai sebesar 72,7%. Dari hasil observasi dijumpai bahwa higiene penjamah makanan dalam kategori kurang baik sebesar 72,7%, fasilitas sanitasi kurang memadai 59%, kebersihan lingkungan kurang 54,5%. Hasil analisis bivariat menunjukkan bahwa variabel yang bermakna berhubungan dengan kontaminasi E. Coli yaitu: higiene penjamah makanan (p=0,00), fasilitas sanitasi (p=0,00) dan kebersihan lingkungan (p=0,05).

Simpulan : Proporsi lawar yang terkontaminasi E. coli masih sangat tinggi dan hal ini berhubungan dengan higiene penjamah makanan, fasilitas sanitasi dan kebersihan lingkungan.

 

 

Abstract

Background and aims: Microbiological quality of food is still a problem on food safety. In Bali there are many traditional food traders, one of which is lawar. Lawar are not only preferred by local people, but also by foreign tourists. Microbiological test to lawar needs to be done to comply with the quality standards of food that can prevent cases of traveler's diarrhea. In preparing traditional food as a food tourism will require assessment of the quality of the food. This is to achieve food safety standards so as to compete in the global market. This study aims to determine the microbiological quality and hygiene lawar traders in the tourist area of Gianyar, Bali as well as hygiene and sanitation models of good food.

Methods: This was a cross sectional analytical study with a quantitative and qualitative approach, using a measuring instrument observation, interview and laboratory tests. Sampling using random sampling method with a sample size 44 and 44 samples of food handlers lawar. In-depth interviews were conducted on 6 lawar traders to know how to create a good lawar. E. coli in samples lawar examination conducted at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine with Total Plate Count (TPC) and the Most Probable Number (MPN), which estimates the number of germs.

Results: The proportion of samples positive lawar with E. coli was found at 72.7%. From the observation found that the hygiene of food handlers in the unfavorable category as much as 72.7%, inadequate sanitation facilities 59%, 54.5% less environmental hygiene. Results of bivariate analysis showed that the variables significantly associated with E. Coli contamination namely: hygiene of food handlers (p = 0.00), sanitary facilities (p = 0.00) and sanitation (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The proportion lawar contaminated with E. coli is still very high and this is associated with a food handler hygiene, sanitation and environmental hygiene.

Keywords: lawar; gianyar; mikrobiologis. (lawar; gianyar; microbiology)

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