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Logam Berat dan Probabilistik Penilaian Risiko Kesehatan Melalui Konsumsi Beras dari Lahan Sawah di Hulu Sungai Citarum

Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian Jl. Raya Jakenan-Jaken Km.5 Kotak Pos 5, Jaken Pati Jawa Tengah, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Beras merupakan salah satu makanan pokok masyarakat Indonesia sehingga perlu adanya jaminan keamanan pada beras khususnya bebas dari cemaran logam berat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan konsentrasi logam berat pada beras yang ditanam pada lahan pertanian di Kabupaten Bandung dan menganalisis risiko kesehatan masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi beras tersebut.

Metode: penentuan lokasi pengambilan contoh dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling pada lahan pertanian yang siap panen di beberapa kecamatan di Kabupaten Bandung dengan jumlah contoh beras sebanyak 26 sampel. Analisis logam berat yang dilakukan adalah analisis logam berat Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu dan Zn dengan ekstrak HNO3:HClO4 dan diukur menggunakan Atomic Absorbption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Analisis probabilistik penilaian risiko kesehatan masyarakat dilakukan dengan menganalisis nilai estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), risiko non-karsinogenik dan risiko karsinogenik.

Hasil: semua contoh beras mengandung logam berat Cr, Co, Cu dan Zn dengan nilai konsentrasi berturut-turut berkisar antara 0.64-2.28 mgkg-1, 1.18-2.66 mgkg-1, 0.64-3.47 mgkg-1 dan 5.44-8.69 mgkg-1. Konsentrasi logam Cu pada contoh beras yang diambil pada lahan pertanian kawasan industri berbeda nyata dengan contoh beras di luar kawasan industri dengan nilai p sebesar 0.014. Risiko non-karsinogenik yang ditimbulkan jika mengkonsumsi beras dari lahan pertanian Kabupaten Bandung tidak mungkin untuk terjadi karena nilai hazard index (HI) menunjukkan angka <1, nilai HI secara berurutan yaitu anak-anak (0.0880)>remaja (0.0370)>dewasa (0.0259)>manula (0.0281) dan risiko karsinogenik juga menunjukkan nilai yang dapat ditoleransi karena di bawah 10-4 untuk semua katogeri umur (anak-anak, remaja, dewasa, manula) dengan nilai cancer risk (CR) berturut-turut sebesar 6.15x10-7, 6.72x10-7, 2.53x10-6 dan 2.74x10-6.

Simpulan: beras yang dihasilkan dari lahan pertanian di Kabupaten Bandung aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat karena risiko kesehatan yang ditimbulkan masih dapat ditoleransi

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Heavy Metals and Probabilistic Risk Assessment Via Rice Consumption From Rice Fields in Upstream of The Citarum River

Background: Rice is one of the staple foods of the Indonesian people, so it is necessary to guarantee the safety of rice, especially free from heavy metal contamination. This study aims to determine the concentration of heavy metals in rice grown on agricultural land in Bandung Regency and analyze the health risks of the people who consume the rice.

Method: the determination of location of sampling was carried out by purposive sampling method on agricultural land that was ready for harvest in several sub-districts in Bandung Regency with a total of 26 samples of rice. Heavy metal analysis carried out was heavy metal analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn with HNO3:HClO4 extract and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Probabilistic analysis of public health risk assessment was carried out by analyzing the estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk.

Results: all rice samples contained Cr, Co, Cu and Zn metals with concentration values ranging from 0.64-2.28 mgkg-1, 1.18-2.66 mgkg-1, 0.64-3.47 mgkg-1 and 5.44-8.69 mgkg-1, respectively. The concentration of Cu metal in rice samples taken on agricultural land in industrial areas was significantly different from rice samples outside industrial areas with a p value of 0.01. The non-carcinogenic risk caused by consuming rice from agricultural land in Bandung Regency is unlikely to occur because the hazard index (HI) value shows the number <1, the HI values are children (0.0880)>adolescents (0.0370)>adults (0.0259 )> the elderly (0.0281) and the carcinogenic risk also shows a value that can be tolerated because it was below 10-4 for all age categories (children, adolescents, adults and the elderly) with a cancer risk (CR) value of 6.15x10-7, 6.72x10-7, 2.53x10-6 and 2.74x10-6.

Conclution: Rice produced from agricultural land in Bandung Regency is safe for consumption by the community because the health risks caused are still tolerable.

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Keywords: beras; Citarum; logam berat; risiko kesehatan

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