Total Phenolic and Coumarin Content, Antioxidant Activity of Leaves, Fruits, and Stem Barks of Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina)

*Alik Kandhita Febriani  -  Faculty of Health Sciences, Muhadi Setiabudi University, Indonesia
Ismiyarto Ismiyarto scopus  -  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Khairul Anam orcid scopus  -  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Received: 7 Nov 2019; Revised: 8 Feb 2020; Accepted: 14 Feb 2020; Published: 29 Feb 2020.
Open Access Copyright 2020 Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Cover Image
Article Info
Section: Research Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Supp. File(s):
Type Other
  Download (742KB)    Indexing metadata
Statistics: 153 138
Avicennia marina is one of the mangrove species used for traditional medicines. The leaves, fruits, and stem barks of A. marina are used for treating skin diseases. The stem barks are used for rheumatism, smallpox, and ulcers. The extract of A. marina was also reported to have antioxidant activity and indicates the presence of alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, tannin, sterol/triterpenoid, and coumarin. However, the comparison of the antioxidant activity of leaves, fruits, and stem barks is not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and coumarin content of leaves, fruits, and stem barks of A. marina. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was evaluated by spectrophotometric method at 515 nm. Quercetin was used for comparison. The fruits had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 85.246 ppm, followed by stem barks and leaves with IC50 of 205.281 ppm and 307.037 ppm, respectively. Although the antioxidant activity of A. marina fruits was far from quercetin (IC50 of 3.789 ppm), it still categorized as a strong antioxidant. The strong antioxidant activity of fruits was followed by higher total phenolic and coumarin content than the stem barks and leaves part. Total phenolic and coumarin content of fruits were 49.119 mg GAE/ g and 8.894 x 10-3 mg CE/g, respectively. The leaves part had total coumarin content of 8.418 x 10-3 mg CE/g, but it had low IC50. It may be caused by the other secondary metabolite compounds that could reduce the antioxidant activity of coumarin.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Avicennia marina; antioxidant; phenolic; coumarin

Article Metrics:

  1. Shigeyuki Baba, Hung Tuck Chan, Mami Kainuma, Mio Kezuka, Eric WC Chan and Joseph Tangah, Botany, uses, chemistry and bioactivities of mangrove plants III: Xylocarpus granatum, ISME/GLOMIS Electronic Journal, 14, 1, (2016), 1-4
  2. Halidah Halidah, Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh Jenis Mangrove yang Kaya Manfaat, Buletin Eboni, 11, 1, (2014), 37-44
  3. Peter Saenger, E.J. Hegerl and Jim D.S. Davie, Global status of mangrove ecosystems, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1983
  4. M.T. Fauvel, K. Taoubi, J. Gleye and I. Fouraste, Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Avicennia marina, Planta medica, 59, 04, (1993), 387-387
  5. WM Bandaranayake, Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves, Mangroves and salt marshes, 2, 3, (1998), 133-148
  6. Mobashshera Tariq, Mónica Lopez, Meghana Gore and Kasoju Aruna, Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Extracts on ESBL and MBL Producing Uropathogens, Journal of Global Biosciences, 4, 7, (2015), 2730-2737
  7. N. Sharief Mohammad, A. Srinivasulu, P. Satya Veni and V Maheswara Rao, Evaluation of antioxidant activity in fruit extracts of Avicennia Marina L and Avicennia Officinalis L, International Journal of Pharmacy, 4, (2014), 149-153
  8. Xiang-Xi Yi, Yong Chen, Wen-Pei Xie, Ming-Ben Xu, Yin-Ning Chen, Cheng-Hai Gao and Ri-Ming Huang, Four new jacaranone analogs from the fruits of a Beibu Gulf mangrove Avicennia marina, Marine drugs, 12, 5, (2014), 2515-2525
  9. Pritam Mukherjee, Bulti Nayak, Madhumita Roy and Abhijit Mitra, Anti-Microbial , Anti-Oxidant and Phytochemical Profiling of Avicennia marina and Avicennia alba , The Dominant Mangrove Floral Species of Indian Sundarbans, International Journal of Advanced Research, 5, 3, (2017), 81-94
  10. Catherine Rice-Evans, Nicholas Miller and George Paganga, Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds, Trends in Plant Science, 2, 4, (1997), 152-159
  11. Wolf Bors, Werner Heller, Christa Michel and Manfred Saran, [36] Flavonoids as antioxidants: Determination of radical-scavenging efficiencies, in: Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, 1990, pp. 343-355
  12. Falko P. Drijfhout and E. David Morgan, 4.11 - Terrestrial Natural Products as Antifeedants, in: H.-W. Liu, L. Mander (Eds.) Comprehensive Natural Products II, Elsevier, Oxford, 2010, pp. 457-501
  13. Maria Traykova and Irena Kostova, Coumarin Derivatives and Oxidative Stress, International Journal of Pharmacology, 1, (2005),
  14. Irena Kostova, Synthetic and Natural Coumarins as Cytotoxic Agents, Current medicinal chemistry. Anti-cancer agents, 5, (2005), 29-46
  15. Irena Kostova, Studying plant-derived coumarins for their pharmacological and therapeutic properties as potential anticancer drugs, Expert opinion on drug discovery, 2, (2007), 1605-1618
  16. Irena Kostova, Coumarins as Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase, Current HIV research, 4, (2006), 347-363
  17. Irena Kostova and Ján Mojžiš, Biologically active coumarins as inhibitors of HIV1, Future HIV Therapy, 1, (2007), 315-329
  18. Gregory Finn, Bernadette Creaven and Denise Egan, Daphnetin induced differentiation of human renal carcinoma cells and its mediation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Biochemical pharmacology, 67, (2004), 1779-1788
  19. Irena Kostova, Sumati Bhatia, P. Grigorov, Stefan Balkanski, Virinder Parmar, A. Prasad and Luciano Saso, Coumarins as Antioxidants, Current medicinal chemistry, 18, (2011), 3929-3951
  20. Hildebert Wagner and Sabine Bladt, Plant drug analysis: a thin layer chromatography atlas, Springer Science & Business Media, 1996
  21. Adriana Osório and Jorge Martins, Determinação de cumarina em extrato fluido e tintura de guaco por espectrofotometria derivada de primeira ordem, Revista Brasileira De Ciencias Farmaceuticas - RBCF, 40, (2004),
  22. Yau Lim and J. Murtijaya, Antioxidant properties of Phyllanthus amarus extracts as affected by different drying methods, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 40, (2007), 1664-1669
  23. W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier and C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28, 1, (1995), 25-30
  24. Hiroshi Ohkawa, Nobuko Ohishi and Kunio Yagi, Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction, Analytical Biochemistry, 95, 2, (1979), 351-358
  25. Raafat A Khattab, Ali Gaballa, SA Zakaria, AA El-Sayed, Ibrahim Sultan Sallam and Tarek Temraz, Phytochemical analysis of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata by GC-MS, Catrina, 7, 1, (2012), 115-120
  26. M Ananthavalli and S Karpagam, Antibacterial activity and phytochemical content of Avicennia Marina collected from polluted and unpolluted site, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 5, 3, (2017), 47-49
  27. Cheng Huang, Chung-Kuang Lu, Ming-Chin Tu, Jia-Hua Chang, Yen-Ju Chen, Yu-Hsuan Tu and Hsiu-Chen Huang, Polyphenol-rich Avicennia marina leaf extracts induce apoptosis in human breast and liver cancer cells and in a nude mouse xenograft model, Oncotarget, 7, (2014)
  28. Antony Ruba, Nishanthini A and Veerabahu Mohan, Antioxidant activity of Avicennia marina (forssk) vierh leaf using various in vitro Assay Models, The Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2, (2013), 1663-1675
  29. Swagat Kumar Das, Dibyajyoti Samantaray, Archana Mahapatra, Nityasundar Pal, Rudranarayan Munda and Hrudayanath Thatoi, Pharmacological activities of leaf and bark extracts of a medicinal mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis L, Clinical Phytoscience, 4, 1, (2018), 13
  30. Laksmi Sulmartiwi, Dwi Pujiastuti, Wahju Tjahjaningsih and Jariyah Jariyah, Potential of mangrove Avicennia rumphiana extract as an antioxidant agent using multilevel extraction, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 137, (2018), 012075
  31. Mira Jun, H. Y. Fu, J. Hong, Xia Wan, Chung Yang and Chi-Tang Ho, Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Isoflavones from Kudzu Root (Pueraria lobata Ohwi), Journal of Food Science, 68, (2006), 2117-2122
  32. Dong-Mei Yan, Chenghai Gao, Xiang-Xi Yi, Wen-Pei Xie, Ming-Ben Xu and Ri-Ming Huang, Two new secondary metabolites from the fruits of mangrove Avicennia marina, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, 70, (2015),
  33. N. D. Takarina, G. A. F. Arif and S. A. Juhriah, Phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of mangrove (Avicennia marina) leaves extract, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2023, 1, (2018), 020129
  34. Pooja Moteriya, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk.), Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 3, (2015), 930-934