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Preparation of Zinc Oxide/Graphite Composite Using Solid-State Method as an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57146, Indonesia

2Centre of Excellence for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57146, Indonesia

3Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

Received: 18 May 2022; Revised: 22 Jul 2022; Accepted: 2 Aug 2022; Published: 31 Aug 2022.
Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries using zinc oxide (ZnO) as anode material had a high theoretical capacity of about 987 mAh/g. Unfortunately, ZnO capacity can drop below 200 mAh/g after only a few cycles. For that reason, graphite was added in this study due to its stable theoretical capacity of around 348-374 mAh/g to maintain the stability of lithium-ion battery capacity. Zinc oxide/graphite (ZnO/Graphite) was prepared using a solid-state method, in which ZnO and graphite were mortared until homogeneous with the mass ratio of (2:1), (1:1), and (1:2). The SEM images of all samples showed the agglomerate morphology between ZnO and graphite which affect the results of the battery performance test. The final result of the ZnO/Graphite anode can be considered a continuous anode material due to the stable cycle performance obtained in the range of 219.72–371.27 mAh/g with a decreased value of 40% after 55 cycles.
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Keywords: Zinc oxide; Graphite; solid-state method; anode; lithium-ion battery
Funding: Universitas Sebelas Maret

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