skip to main content

Preparedness among Family Caregivers of Patients with Non-Communicable Diseases in Indonesia

*Ike Wuri Winahyu Sari  -  Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Novita Nirmalasari  -  Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background: Family caregivers spend 24 hours a day looking after and assisting patients. However, they are not always adequately prepared for all the problems they face. There is a lack of evidence exploring caregivers’ preparedness among family caregivers of patients with non-communicable diseases in Indonesia.

Purpose: This study aimed to identify caregivers’ preparedness among family caregivers of patients with non-communicable diseases.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 120 Indonesian family caregivers for patients with non-communicable diseases, who were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using the Indonesian version of the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale (PCS) which had been validated before its use. The possible scores of this tool ranged from 0.00 to 4.00. The higher the score, the more prepared the family caregivers were. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA .

Results: Family caregivers reported feeling of moderately prepared for caregiving. The score of family caregiver preparedness for patients with diabetes, cancer, and chronic kidney disease were 2.97±0.42; 2.83±0.40; 2.89±0.49, respectively with possible range from 0.00 to 4.00. There were no differences on the caregivers’ preparedness among family caregivers of patients with non-communicable diseases (p=0.387).

Conclusion: Caregivers’ preparedness is an essential element of patient care. Nurses have to be proactive in assessing each family caregiver’s preparedness to enhance the quality of life of both the family caregivers and the patients themselves, so that they can be empowered as a source of nursing care.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Caregiver Preparedness; Indonesia; non-communicable Disease; PCS

Article Metrics:

  1. Ahn, S., Hochhalter, A.K., Moudouni, D.K., Smith, M.L., & Ory, M.G. (2012). Self-reported physical and mental health of older adults: the roles of caregiving and resources. Maturitas, 71, 62-69. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.10.011
  2. Archbold, P.G., Stewart, B.J., Greenlick, M.R., & Harvath, T. (1990). Mutuality and preparedness as predictors of caregiver role strain. Research in Nursing & Health, 13, 375-384. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770130605
  3. Carter, J.H., Lyons, K.S., Stewart, B.J., Archbold, P.G., & Scobee, R. (2010). Does age make a difference in caregiver strain? Comparison of young versus older caregivers in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 25, 724-730. doi: 10.1002/mds.22888
  4. Effendy, C., Vissers, K., Tejawinata, S., Vernooij-Dassen, M., Engels, Y. (2014). Dealing with symptoms and issues of hospitalized patients with cancer in Indonesia: the role of families, nurses, and physicians. Pain Practice, 15(5), 441-6. doi: 10.1111/papr.12203
  5. El-Majzoub, S., Mucsi, I., Li, M., Moussaoui, G., Lipman, M.L., Looper, K.J., … Rej, S. (2019). Psychosocial distress and health service utilization in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a prospective study. Psychosomatics, 60(4), 385-392. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2018.10.001
  6. Funk, L. M., Chappell, N. L. & Liu, G. (2011). Associations between filial responsibility and caregiver well-being: are there differences by cultural group? Research on Aging, 35(1), 78-95. doi: 10.1177/0164027511422450
  7. Given, B.A., Given, C.W., & Sherwood, P. (2012). The challenge of quality cancer care for family caregivers. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 28 (4), 205-212. doi: 10.1016/j.soncn.2012.09.002
  8. Gonzales, E. W., Polansky, M., Lippa, C. F., Gitlin, L. N., & Zauszniewski, J. A. (2014). Enhancing resourcefulness to improve outcomes in family caregivers and persons with alzheimer’s disease: a pilot randomized trial. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 1–10. doi: 10.1155/2014/323478
  9. Grant, M., Sun, V., Fujinami, R., Sidhu, R., Otis-Green, S., Juarez, G., … Ferrell, B. (2012). Family caregiver burden, skills preparedness, and quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40, 337-346. doi: 10.1188/13.ONF.337-346
  10. Guan, T., Santacroce, S. J., Chen, D., & Song, L. (2020). Illness uncertainty, coping, and quality of life among patients with prostate cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 29(6), 1019-1025. doi: 10.1002/pon.5372
  11. Henriksson, A., Andershed, B., Benzein, E., & Arestedt, K. (2012). Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the preparedness for caregiving scale, caregiver competence scale and rewards of caregiving scale in a sample of Swedish family members of patients with life-threatening illness. Palliative Medicine, 26, 930-938. doi: 10.1177/0269216311419987
  12. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). (2017). IDF Clinical practice recommendation for managing type 2 diabetes in primary care. ISBN: 978-2-930229-85-0. Retrieved from
  13. Kaye, H. S., Harrington, C., & LaPlante, M. P. (2010). Long-term care: who gets it, who provides it, who pays, and how much?. Health Affairs, 29(1), 11–21. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0535
  14. Kristanti, M. S., Engels, Y., Effendy, C., Astuti, Utarini, A., & Vernooij-Dassen, M. (2017). Comparison of the lived experiences of family caregivers of patients with dementia and of patients with cancer in Indonesia. International Psychogeriatrics, 30(6), 903–914. doi: 10.1017/s1041610217001508
  15. Liu, J., Liu, Q., Huang, Y., Wang, W., He, G., & Zeng, Y. (2020). The effects of personal characteristics, disease uncertainty and knowledge on family caregivers’ preparedness of stroke survivors: A cross‐sectional study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 22(4), 892-902. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12743
  16. Machado, B.M., Dahdah, D.F., & Kebbe, L.M. (2018). Caregivers of family members with chronic diseases: coping strategies used in everyday life. Cadernos Brasileiros de Terapia Ocupacional, 26(2), 299-313. doi: 10.4322/2526-8910.ctoao1188
  17. Maheshwari, P.S. & Mahal, R.K. (2016). Relationship of preparedness and burden among family caregivers of cancer patients in India. Journal of Health, Medicine, and Nursing, 22, 35-44
  18. Mazanec, S., Reichlin, D., Gittleman, H., & Daly, B. (2018). Perceived needs, preparedness, and emotional distress of male caregivers of postsurgical women with gynecologic cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 45(2), 197–205. doi: 10.1188/18.onf.197-205
  19. Ministry of Health of Republic Indonesia. (2018). Hasil utama Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2018 [Main results of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) 2018]. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Retrieved from
  20. Otto, A. K., Ketcher, D., Heyman, R. E., Vadaparampil, S. T., Ellington, L., & Reblin, M. (2020). Communication between advanced cancer patients and their family caregivers: relationship with caregiver burden and preparedness for caregiving. Health Communication, 1–8. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2020.1712039
  21. Petruzzo, A., Biagioli, V., Durante, A., Emberti Gialloreti, L., D’Agostino, F., Alvaro, R., & Vellone, E. (2018). Influence of preparedness on anxiety, depression, and quality of life in caregivers of heart failure patients: Testing a model of path analysis. Patient Education and Counseling, 102(5), 1021-1028. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2018.12.027
  22. Petruzzo, A., Paturzo, M., Buck, H.G., Barbaranelli, C., A’Agostino, F., Ausili, D., ….Vellone, E. (2017). Psychometric evaluation of the caregiver preparedness scale in caregivers of adults with heart failure. Research in Nursing & Health, 40(5), 470-478. doi: 10.1002/nur.21811
  23. Rha, S.Y., Park, Y., Song, S.K., Lee, C.E., & Lee, J. (2015). Caregiving burden and the quality of life of family caregivers of cancer patients: the relationship and correlates. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 19, 376-382. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2015.01.004
  24. Sari, I.W.W., Warsini, S., Effendy, C. (2018). Burden among family caregivers of advanced-cancer patients in Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 4(3), 295-303. doi: 10.33546/bnj.479
  25. Schumacher, K.L., Stewart, B.J., & Archbold, P.G. (2007). Mutuality and preparedness moderate the effects of caregiving demand on cancer family caregiver outcomes. Nursing Research, 56, 425-433. doi: 10.1097/01.NNR.0000299852.75300.03
  26. Shyu, Y.I., Yang, C.T., Huang, C.C., Kuo, H.C., Chen, S.T., & Hsu, W.C. (2010). Influences of mutuality, preparedness, and balance on caregivers of patients with dementia. The Journal of Nursing Research, 18 (3), 155–163. doi: 10.1097/JNR.0b013e3181ed5845
  27. Subandi, M. (2011). Family expressed emotion in a Javanese cultural context. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 35(3), 331-346. doi: 10.1007/s11013-011-9220-4
  28. Vellone, E., Biagioli, V., Durante, A., Buck, H. G., Iovino, P., Tomietto, M., … Petruzzo, A. (2020). The influence of caregiver preparedness on caregiver contributions to self-care in heart failure and the mediating role of caregiver confidence. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 35(3), 243–252. doi: 10.1097/jcn.0000000000000632
  29. Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R.M., Bhutta, Z., Carter, A., … Murray, C.J.L. (2016). Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388 (10053), 1459–1544. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1
  30. Werdani, Y.D.W., & Silab, P.A.A. (2020). Self-efficay affects cancer patients in solving problems, seeking support and avoiding problems as coping mechanisms. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 10(2), 146-157. doi: 10.14710/nmjn.v10i2.26803
  31. White, C. L., Barrientos, R., & Dunn, K. (2014). Dimensions of uncertainty after stroke. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 46(4), 233–240. doi: 10.1097/jnn.0000000000000066
  32. Wolff, J. L., & Jacobs, B. J. (2015). Chronic illness trends and the challenges to family caregivers. Family Caregiving in the New Normal, 79–103. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-417046-9.00007-6
  33. Yoon, S-J., Kim, J-S., Jung, J-G., Kim, S-S., & Kim, S. (2014). Modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients. Support Care Cancer, 22, 1243-1250. doi: 10.1007/s00520-013-2077-z

Last update:

  1. Significado de la cronicidad para el cuidador y la persona cuidada: una revisión integrativa

    Claudia Andrea Ramírez-Perdomo, Claudia Patricia Cantillo-Medina, Alix Yaneth Perdomo-Romero , María Elena Rodríguez-Vélez, Lili Andrea Buitrago Malaver, Ana Ligia Escobar Tobón. Avances en Enfermería, 41 (2), 2023. doi: 10.15446/av.enferm.v41n2.104867
  2. Barriers and Support for Family Caregivers in Caring for Older Adults with Dementia: A Qualitative Study in Indonesia

    Rita Hadi Widyastuti, Junaiti Sahar, Etty Rekawati, Aria Kekalih. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 13 (2), 2023. doi: 10.14710/nmjn.v13i2.55729
  3. Tackling the escalating burden of care in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of the challenges experienced by family carers of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases

    Lorna Montgomery, Cyprian Misinde, Alimah Komuhangi, Angela N. Kawooya, Peninah Agaba, Charlene M. McShane, Olinda Santin, Judith Apio, Christopher Jenkins, Florence Githinji, Mandi MacDonald, Florence Nakaggwa, Rose C. Nanyonga. BMC Health Services Research, 23 (1), 2023. doi: 10.1186/s12913-023-10337-6
  4. Evaluation of care burden and caregiving preparedness in caregivers of patients with epilepsy: A sample in eastern Turkey

    Gülcan Bahcecioglu Turan, Nuray Dayapoğlu, Zülfünaz Özer. Epilepsy & Behavior, 124 , 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108370

Last update: 2024-06-22 06:44:47

No citation recorded.