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Membingkai Kontranarasi sebagai Strategi Intervensi Melawan Hoaks COVID-19

*Santi Indra Astuti orcid  -  Fakultas Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Islam Bandung, Bandung|Universitas Islam Bandung, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2022 MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Beredarnya hoaks menjadi permasalahan dalam mengatasi pandemi COVID-19 di Indonesia. Bukan saja jumlahnya yang besar, serta amplifikasinya yang massif di media digital, tetapi juga konten dan narasinya yang sangat berdampak. Saat Indonesia mengalami gelombang penularan COVID-19 varian Delta yang melumpuhkan situasi di bulan Februari s.d. Juli 2021, terdapat 3 hoaks yang diidentifikasi menjadi penyebab jatuhnya lebih banyak korban yang menghambat penanganan kesehatan dan menjauhkan masyarakat dari upaya medis saat tertular COVID-19. Guna menyusun strategi intervensi untuk melawan narasi hoaks tersebut, debunking atau klarifikasi hoaks saja tidak cukup. Diperlukan upaya lebih guna mengubah mindset penerima hoaks, serta menyusun pesan-pesan tandingan atau kontranarasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk melengkapi strategi desain kontranarasi guna melawan hoaks COVID-19 yang telah memunculkan isu infodemi, di samping pandemi itu sendiri.

Metode: Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan analisis tekstual terhadap hoaks pada tahap pertama, dilanjutkan dengan diskusi kelompok terarah (focus group discussion) pada ke 4 segmen masyarakat umum. Kajian berfokus pada analisis tekstual ketiga tema hoaks. Temuannya digunakan untuk menyusun narasi anti hoaks menggunakan dua pendekatan dalam mengomunikasikan sains yaitu storytelling dan naratif, yang diarahkan pada segmen masyarakat umum terdiri dari anak muda, ibu rumah tangga, laki-laki kepala rumah tangga, dan lansia.

Hasil: Penelitian menghasilkan 4 tema kunci bagi setiap segmen sebagai landasan penyusunan kontranarasi, yaitu tema mobilitas untuk anak muda, tema perlindungan keluarga dan kesejahteraan anak-anak untuk ibu rumah tangga, tema meminimalisasi dampak ekonomi bagi para bapak selaku kepala rumah tangga, dan tema menunjang survival untuk lansia. 

Simpulan: Untuk melawan hoaks COVID-19, diperlukan pesan-pesan berupa kontranarasi yang bisa mengomunikasikan sains dengan baik. Upaya untuk membungkus kontranarasi dapat dilakukan dengan mengenali bagaimana target sasaran membangun persepsi resiko terhadap potensi penularan COVID-19 maupun persepsi resiko saat berhadapan dengan hoaks COVID-19.

Kata kunci: hoaks; misinformasi; COVID-19; kontranarasi; strategi intervensi

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Countering Misinformation: Building Narration as Intervention Strategy to Reduce COVID-19 Infodemic

Background: Misinformation of COVID-19, or popularly called hoaxes in Indonesia, has posed a significant threat during the pandemic. The content and narration of those hoaxes were harmful, particularly when shared through social media which influenced people. It is shown during the outbreak of Delta variant of COVID-19 which set new records in the country's positivity rate and death toll. Three themes of COVID-19 misinformation dominated the toxic ecosystem of information at that time. A thematic qualitative textual analysis toward three themes of hoaxes has revealed properties of deceptions being used to manipulate the public. In order to develop an intervention strategy to counter the hoax narrative, debunking or clarifying hoaxes is not enough. More efforts are needed to change the mindset of hoax recipients, as well as compose counter messages or counter-narratives. This paper aims to complement the counter-narrative design strategy to fight the COVID-19 hoax that has raised the issue of the infodemic, in addition to the pandemic itself.

Method: The data collection technique uses textual analysis of hoaxes in the first stage, followed by focus group discussions on the 4 segments of the general public. The study focuses on textual analysis of the three hoax themes. The findings are used to develop anti-hoax narratives using two approaches in communicating science, namely storytelling and narrative, which are directed at the general public segment consisting of young people, housewives, male heads of household, and the elderly.

Result: An elaboration of the findings from both data collection techniques resulted in four key themes of each segment that laid the foundations for composing a counternarrative against the misinformation; namely the theme of mobility for young people, the theme of family protection and children's welfare for housewives, the theme of minimizing the economic impact for fathers as the head of the household, and the theme of supporting survival for the elderly.

Conclusion: To fight the COVID-19 hoax, we need messages in the form of counter-narratives that can communicate science well. Efforts to wrap the counter-narrative can be done by recognizing how the target audience builds a risk perception of the potential for COVID-19 transmission and risk perception when dealing with COVID-19 hoaxes.

Keywords: hoaxes; misinformation; COVID-19; counternarrative; intervention strategy

 

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Keywords: hoaks; misinformasi; COVID-19; kontranarasi; strategi intervensi

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