skip to main content

Kepentingan China sebagai Aktor di Balik Rekonsiliasi Hubungan Arab Saudi dan Iran

Program Studi Ilmu-Ilmu Humaniora, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Tulisan ini menjelaskan tentang kepentingan China di Timur Tengah, khususnya terhadap Arab Saudi dan Iran. Tujuan artikel ini untuk memahami lebih dalam kepentingan apa yang melatarbelakangi China yang menjadikan dirinya sebagai mediator dalam rekonsiliasi hubungan antara Arab Saudi - Iran. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analitis, yaitu mendeskripsikan terlebih dahulu materi pembahasan dan kemudian dianalisis. Adapun teori yang digunakan adalah kepentingan nasional, yang terdiri dari kepentingan pertahanan, kepentingan ekonomi, kepentingan tatanan dunia, dan kepentingan ideologi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa pada kepentingan pertahanan, China memiliki kepentingan untuk memperkuat aliansi militer sekaligus penjualan senjata kepada Saudi-Iran. Pada kepentingan ekonomi, Saudi-Iran merupakan sumber utama penghasil minyak, gas dan energi serta lahan strategis untuk investasi bagi China. Dalam kepentingan tatanan dunia, menjalin kerja sama dengan Saudi-Iran tentu membuat eksistensi China di dunia internasional semakin besar. Terakhir, China membutuhkan dukungan Saudi-Iran dalam memerangi Uyghur yang merupakan kelompok Islam.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: kepentingan China; kepentingan nasional; politik luar negeri; Arab Saudi; Iran

Article Metrics:

  1. Afterman, G. (n.d.). China’s Growing Interest in the Middle East. Retrieved from lowyinstitute.org: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/china-s-growing-interest-middle-east
  2. Aras, B. (2023). Saudi-Iranian Normalization and its Repercussions on Israel-Iran Confrontation (Restoration of Saudi-Iranian Ties: Wider Geopolitical Implications). Gulf Studies Center Policy Brief, 11, 1-10
  3. Bagheri, A. (n.d.). China-Saudi Arabia Missile Cooperation. Retrieved from mepei.com: https://mepei.com/china-saudi-arabia-missile-cooperation/
  4. bbc.com. (n.d.). Who are the Uyghurs and Why is China being Accused of Genocide? Retrieved from BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-22278037
  5. Blanchard, C. M. (2023). Middle East and North Africa-China Relations. Congressional Research Service, 1-34
  6. Burchill, S. (2005). The National Interest in International Relations Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
  7. Chen, J. (2011). The Emergence of China in the Middle East. Stategic Forum, 271, 1-8
  8. Charles, Chong, & Han Wu. (2017). Understanding the Structures and Contents of National Interests: An Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 15(3), 391-420. doi: 10.14731/kjis.2017.12.1
  9. Ciorciari, J. D., & Haacke, J. (2019). Hedging in International Relations: An Introduction. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 19(3), 367-374
  10. Degang, S. (2018). China’s Soft Military Presence in the Middle East. King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, 1-12
  11. DIIS. (2015). China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East. Conference Report, Danish Institute for International Studies and University of Copenhagen, 1-49
  12. eng.mod.gov.cn. (n.d.). China, Iran and Russia Hold Joint Maritime Exercise in Gulf of Oman. Retrieved from China Military Online: http://eng.mod.gov.cn/xb/MilitaryServices/News_213106/16209920.html
  13. eng.mod.gov.cn. (n.d.). China, Saudi Arabia Vow to Boost Military Cooperation. Retrieved from Ministry of National Defense: http://eng.mod.gov.cn/xb/News_213114/TopStories/4903623.html
  14. Faiza, A. N. (n.d.). Anggaran Militer Arab Saudi 2 Tahun Terakhir, Rp652 Triliun untuk 2022. Retrieved from international.sindonews.com: https://international.sindonews.com/read/716203/43/anggaran-militer-arab-saudi-2-tahun-terakhir-rp652-triliun-untuk-2022-1647561837/10
  15. Fulton, J. (2020). China-Saudi Arabia Relations Through the ‘1+2+3’ Cooperation Pattern. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1-12. doi: 10.1080/25765949.2020.1841991
  16. Guzansky, Y., & Lavi, G. (2020). Saudi Arabia-China Relations: A Brave Friendship or Useful Leverage? Strategic Assessment, 23(2), 109-114
  17. Hardani, Auliya, N. H., Andriani, H., Fardani, R. A., Ustiawaty, J., Utami, E. F., & Istiqomah, R. R. (2020). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif. Yogyakarta: CV. Pustaka Ilmu Group Yogyakarta
  18. Harold, S., & Nader, A. (2012). China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations. Center for Middle East Public Policy, RAND Corporation, 1-9
  19. Houghton, B. (2022). China’s Balancing Strategy between Saudi Arabia and Iran: The View from Riyadh. Asian Affairs, 53(1), 124-144. doi: 10.1080/03068374.2022.2029065
  20. Jin, W. (2016). Selective Engagement: China’s Middle East Policy after the Arab Spring. Strategic Assessment, 19(2), 105-117
  21. Khan, S. A. (2021). China’s Increasing Influence in the Middle East. E-International Relations, 1-6
  22. Liangxiang, J. (2020). China and Middle East Security Issues: Challenges, Perceptions and Positions. IAI Papers, 20, 1-22
  23. Loft, P., Curtis, J., & Ward, M. (2022). China and the US in the Middle East: Iran and the Arab Gulf. Commons Library Research Briefing, 1-44
  24. Lons, C., Fulton, J., Sun, D., & Tamimi, N. A. (2019). China's Great Game in the Middle East. Policy Brief, 1-33
  25. Mackenzie, P. (2010). A Closer Look at China-Iran Relations. CNA China Studies, 1-18
  26. mepc.org. (n.d.). The Middle East and China. Retrieved from Middle East Policy Council: https://mepc.org/speeches/middle-east-and-china
  27. Metea, I. G. (2020). National Interest, Terminology and Directions of Approach. International Conference Knowledge-Based Organization, 26(1), 75-79
  28. Nouri, M. A. (2023). Why Iran-Saudi Reconciliation may be Shaky. Retrieved from www.stimson.org: https://www.stimson.org/2023/why-iran-saudi-reconciliation-may-be-shaky/
  29. Nuechterlein, D. E. (1976). National Interests and Foreign Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Decision-Making. British Journal International Studies, 2, 246-266
  30. Oktav, Ö. Z. (n.d.). Saudi-Iran Reconciliation: China's Mediator Role in Middle East. Retrieved from www.dailysabah.com: https://www.dailysabah.com/opinion/op-ed/saudi-iran-reconciliation-chinas-mediator-role-in-middle-east
  31. Omidi, A. (2023). What are the Drivers and Implications of Reconciliation between Iran and Saudi Arabia? Retrieved from www.middleeastmonitor.com: https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20231004-what-are-the-drivers-and-implications-of-reconciliation-between-iran-and-saudi-arabia/
  32. Raco, J. R. (2020). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif: Jenis, Karakteristik dan Keunggulannya. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia
  33. Rózsa, E. N. (2021). China’s Interests in the Middle East and North Africa. IEMed, Mediterranean Yearbook, 68-73
  34. Sari, I. (2023). The Impact of the Iran-Saudi Arabia Deal on the Middle East: A New Wave of Regional Normalization? Orsam Analysis, 312, 1-24
  35. Soong, J. J. (2023). The Political Economy of Asian States and Their Development Strategies under USA-China Power Rivalry: Conducting Hedging Strategy on Triangular Relation and Operation. The Chinese Economy, 56(4), 245-255
  36. Stanzel, A. (2022). China’s Path to Geopolitics: Case Study on China’s Iran Policy at the Intersection of Regional Interests and Global Power Rivalry. SWP Research Paper, 1-34
  37. strategiecs.com. (n.d.). China’s Strategy in the Middle East from an Analytical Perspective. Retrieved from Strategiecs Team: https://strategiecs.com/en/analyses/chinas-strategy-in-the-middle-east-from-an-analytical-perspective
  38. Tessman, B., & Wolfe, W. (2011). Great Powers and Strategic Hedging: The Case of Chinese Energy Security Strategy. International Studies Review, 13, 214-240
  39. The Iran Primer. (2016, Januari 6). Timeline of Iran-Saudi Relations. Retrieved from iranprimer.usip.org: https://iranprimer.usip.org/blog/2016/jan/06/timeline-iran-saudi-relations
  40. Torres, J. I. (2023). China's Consolidation in the Middle East. Analysis Paper IEEE, 32, 1-12
  41. Yuzhu, W. (2021). Hedging Strategy: Concept, Behavior, and Implications for China-ASEAN Relations. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (AEACC-CASS), 1(2), 1-36

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-04-22 03:44:49

No citation recorded.