skip to main content

Determination of Optimum Conditions for Synthesis of Methyl Ester from Bleached Crude Palm Oil Using Sn-Zeolite and Red Mud Catalysts

Esi Amelyanti  -  Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia
*Thamrin Usman  -  Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia
Winda Rahmalia orcid  -  Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia

Citation Format:
Abstract

Methyl esters synthesis from bleached crude palm oil (BCPO) containing 0.36 and 20.86% of free fatty acids using Sn-zeolite and red mud has been done. This study aims to determine the esterification, transesterification, and transesterification-esterification simultaneous reactions optimum conditions when using Sn-zeolite, red mud, and Sn-zeolite-red mud mixture catalysts. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis results show that Sn has been impregnated on zeolite, indicated by cassiterite and Sn-O-Sn vibrational peaks in Sn-zeolite. The main component of red mud is NaCO3, indicated by analcite and carbonate peaks. Thin-layer chromatography results in the transesterification showed that red mud catalyst could totally convert triglycerides from BCPO to methyl ester when 5% catalyst, 3 hours, and CPO:methanol mole ratio 1:20 were used. In esterification, Sn-zeolite can synthesize methyl ester from low-quality CPO when using CPO:methanol mole ratio 1:20 for 3 hours, however, the conversion was not total. In the transesterification-esterification simultaneous, the conversion was also not total which the best reaction conditions at mixing Sn-zeolite:red mud 1.5:1 (w/w), 7% catalyst, and CPO:methanol mole ratio 1:20 for 3 hours. This study shows that esterification and transesterification processes can be carried out simultaneously at a particular mass ratio of Sn-zeolite and red mud.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Biodiesel; bleached crude palm oil; methyl aster; red mud; Sn-zeolite

Article Metrics:

  1. Adhani, L., Isalmi, A., Siti, N., dan Cristie, O.O. 2016. Pembuatan biodiesel dengan cara adsorpsi dan transesterifikasi dari minyak goring bekas. Jurnal Kimia VALENSI 2(1), 71-80
  2. Alfiah, C., dan Susanto, W.H. 2015. Penanganan pasca panen kelapa sawit (penyemprotan kalium sorbat terhadap mutu crude palm oil). Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 3(1), 61-72
  3. Alimuddin, A.H., Thamrin, U., Nelly, W., Rudiansyah, Prawatya, Y.E., Ismail, A., dan Yustira,Y. 2017. Synthesis and characterization of Sn/zeolite and catalytic activity test in the esterification reaction of sludge oil. American Institute of Physics (AIP) Conferences Proceedings 1823 020052-1-5
  4. Bhatnagar, A., Vilar, V.J.P., Botelho, C.M.C., Boaventura, R.A.R. 2011. A review of the use red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from water and wastewater. Environmental Technology 32(3), 231-249
  5. Byrappa, K and B.V., Suresh. K, 2007, Characterization of zaeolites by infrared spectroscopy. Asian Journal of Chemistry 19(6), 4933-4935
  6. Coates, J. 2000. Interpretation of infrared spectra, A practical approach, In: Meyers, R.A., Ed., Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 10815-10837
  7. Dos Santos, R.A.M., de Oliveira, S., Pilau, E.J., Porto, C., Goncalves, J.E., de O;iveira, A.J.B., Gonsalves, G.A.C. 2018. Biotransformation of (+)-carvone and (-)-carvone using human skin fungi: a greem method of obtaining fragrances and flavors. Biotransfor 36, 396-400
  8. Edyson, Fitrah, M., Adhy, A., Erika, J.A., dan Melina, P.A. 2022. Preprocessing factors affected free fatty acid content in crude palm oil quality. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia (JIPI) 27(2): 177-181
  9. Febrianti, D.R., Yugo, S., Rakhmadhan, N. dan Siti, L. 2019. Aktivitas aktibakteri minyak atsiri kulit jeruk siam banjar (citrus reticulate) terhadap pertumbuhan pseudomonas aeruginosa. Jurnal Pharmascience 6(1), 10-17
  10. Gupta, V., and Singh, K.P. 2023. The impact of heterogeneous catalyst on biodiesel production; a review. Materialstoday:Proceedings 78(3), 364-371
  11. Handoko, D.S.P., 2003. Preparasi katalis Cr/zeolite melalui modifikasi zeolit alam. Jurnal Ilmu Dasar 3(1), 15-23
  12. Hart, H., Craine, L.E., dan Hart, D.J. 2003. Kimia Organik, Achmadi, S.S. (alih Bahasa), Erlangga, Jakarta
  13. Hazrat, M.A., Rasul, M.G., Khan, M.M.K., Mofijur, M., Ahmed, S.F., Ong, H.C., Vo, DV.N., Show, P.L. 2021. Tehniques to improve the stability of biodiesel: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters
  14. Kusuma, I.R., Handinoto, P, J., Ayucitra, A., dan Ismadji, S. 2011. Pemanfaatan zeolite alam sebagai katalis murah dalam proses pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak kelapa sawit, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Fundamental dan Aplikasi Teknik Kimia, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November: Surabaya
  15. Liang, W., Couperthwalte, S.J., Kaur, G., Yan, C., dan Wilkison, K. J. 2014. Effect of strong acids on Red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties. Journal Colloid and Interface Science 423(1), 158-165
  16. Liu, Q., Haipeng, L., Xiaoke, F., Jingjie, Z., Chuanxiang, Z., Minglie, M., Fenghai, L., dan Guangxu, H. 2017. Preparation of modified red mud supported fe catalyst for hydrogen production by catalytic methane decomposition. Journal of Nanomaterials 1(1), 1-10
  17. Liu, Q., Ruiui, X., Chengcheng, L., Chunli, X., dan Jun, Y. 2013. Application of redmud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Sciences 25(4), 823-829
  18. Majumder, S. 2009. Synthesis and characterization of SnO2 film obtained by a wet chemical process. Materials Science Poland 27(1), 123-129
  19. Mulyatun, M., Jedy, P., I. Istadi., dan W. Widayat. 2022. Production of non-food feedstock based biodiesel using acid base bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst: A review. Fuel 314: 122749
  20. Manadee, S., Sophiphun, O., Osakoo, N., Supamathanon, N., Kidkhunthod, P., Chalenk, N., Wittayakun, J., Prayoonpokarach, S. 2017. Identification of potassium phase in catalysts supported on zeolite NaX and performance in transesterification of Jatropha seed oil. Fuel Processing Technology 156, 62-67
  21. Manuale, D.L., Torres, G.C., Vera, C.R., and Yori, J.C. 2015. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology 140(1), 252-261
  22. Padmaningsih, A.T., Wega, T., and Tahir, I. 2006. Kajian pengaruh konsentrasi katalis Nb2O5-ZAA terhadap konversi biodiesel total pada transesterifikasi minyak goring bekas. Jurnal Indo. J.Chem 6(3), 268-274
  23. Peter, A.P., Kuan, S.K., Kit, W.C., Tau, C.L., Shih, H.H., Jo, S.C., and Pau, L.S. 2021. Microalgae for biofuels, wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring, A Review:Environmental Chemistry Letters, 1-15
  24. Prakoso, T., Indra, B.K., and R. Heru. N. 2007. Esterifikasi asam lemak bebas dalam minyak sawit mentah untuk produksi metil ester. Jurnal Teknik Kimia Indonesia 6(3), 705-709
  25. Putri, P.C.E., dan Edy, S. 2020, Transesterifikasi minyak kelapa sawit menggunakan katalis kalsium oksida (CaO) menjadi biodiesel, METANA 16(2), 75-80
  26. Ramadhani, E.P., and Dian, P. 2018. Potensi pemanfaatan redmud Pulau Bintan. Jurnal Zarah 6(1), 1-5
  27. Rattanaphra, D., Adam, H., and Penjit, S. 2010. Simultaneous conversion of triglyceride/free fatty acid mixtures into biodiesel using sulphated zirconia. Topics in Catalyst 53, 773-782
  28. Shang, J., Chai, M., Zhu, Y. Photocatalytic degradation of polystyrene plastic under fluorescent light. Environmental Sci. Technol 37, 4494-4499
  29. Tang, Q., Ge, Y.Y., Wang, K.T., He, Y., Cui, X.M. 2015. Preparation of porous P-type zeolite NaP with suspension solidification method. Mater. Lett 161(1), 558-560
  30. Usman, T., Rudiansyah, Nelly, W., Ismail, A., Yudi, Y., Andi, H. A., and Winda, R. 2019. Tin-empty palm bunch ash impregnated zeolite as suitable catalyst for simultaneous transesterification-esterification reaction of palm oil. Seminar Nasional Material (SNM 2018) IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 599
  31. Wang, L., Sun, N., Tang, H., and Wei, S.A. 2019. A review on comprehensive utilization of red mud and prospect analysis. Minerals 9(1), 362
  32. Wendi, V.C., and Taslim, 2015. Pengaruh suhu reaksi dan jumlah katalis pada pembuatan biodiesel dari lemak sapi dengan menggunakan katalis heterogen CaO dari kulit telur ayam, Jurnal Kimia Universitas Sumatera Utara 4(1), 35-41
  33. Yustira, Y., Thamrin, U., and Nelly, W. 2015. Sintesis katalis Sn/zeolite dan uji aktivitas pada reaksi esterifikasi limbah minyak kelapa sawit (palm sludge oil). Jurnal Kimia Khatulistiwa 4(1), 58-66
  34. Zhang, L.Y., Wang, Y.Z., Wei, G.T., Li, Z.Y., Huang, H.N. 2016. Biodiesel preparation from Jatropha oil catalyzed by KF/Red mud catalyst. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 38(12), 1713-1720
  35. Zhao, S., Li, H., Zhang, W., Wang, B., Yang, X., Peng, Y., Zhang, Y., and Zhou, L. 2022. Insight into crystallization features of MOR zeolite synthesized via ice-templating method. Catalyst 12 (301), 1-17

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-05-17 22:53:32

No citation recorded.