PERBEDAAN SUHU PENGOLAHAN DENGAN METODE STEAM JACKETED SEDERHANA TERHADAP MUTU MINYAK DARI LIMBAH KEPALA IKAN MACKEREL Different Processing Temperatures of Simple Steam Jacketed Method toward Quality of Crude Fish Oil from Head Wasteof Mackerel

*Rukmana Rahayu Lestari  -  Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Ratna Ibrahim  -  Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Putut Har Riyadi  -  Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Published: 25 Feb 2016.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Abstract

 

Proses pengolahan minyak ikan kasar dengan metode steam jacketed di salah satu perusahaan pengolahan hasil perikanan menggunakan bahan baku campuran limbah padat pengalengan ikan Mackerel dengan suhu yang tinggi 90-100 °C menghasilkan produk yang belum memenuhi persyaratan mutu minyak ikan secara nasional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan suhu pengolahan minyak ikan kasar ≤ 85 °C dari kepala ikan Mackerel tanpa insang dengan metode steam jacketed sederhana terhadap mutu produknya serta untuk mengetahui suhu dan lama waktu pengolahan yang menghasilkan minyak ikan kasar yang memenuhi persyaratan mutu secara nasional maupun internasional. Materi penelitian berupa kepala ikan Mackerel tanpa insang. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental laboratoris. Percobaan dirancang dengan Rancangan Percobaan Kelompok dengan perlakuan suhu berbeda (85 °C, 75 °C, dan 65 °C). Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Variabel mutu yang diamati adalah asam lemak bebas, bilangan peroksida, bilangan iod, kadar air, rendemen dan nilai sensori, serta uji profil asam lemak untuk produk yang terbaik. Data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA dan perbedaan diantara perlakuan diuji dengan Uji Tukey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan suhu pengolahan minyak ikan kasar dari kepala ikan Mackerel tanpa insang dengan metode steam jacketed sederhana memberikan pengaruh berbeda nyata terhadap nilai asam lemak bebas, bilangan peroksida, bilangan iod, dan rendemen, tetapi tidak menyebabkan perbedaan nyata terhadap nilai sensori. Mutu produk terbaik yaitu produk yang diolah pada suhu 65 °C selama 20 menit, produk tersebut mengandung asam lemak omega-3 dan omega-6.

  

The process of crude fish oil processing using the steam jacketed method in a fish product processing company which uses the raw material of solid mixed waste of canned Mackerel at 90-100 °C result in the products which have not fulfilled the requirement of national fish oil quality. The purpose of this research is to figure out the effect of processing temperature difference in the processing of crude fish oil below or at 85 °C from gill-less Mackerel fish head using the simple steam jacketed method on the quality of the processing products. This research is also intended to figure out the temperature and duration for the processing which produces the crude fish oil to fulfill both national and international quality standard.The research materials were gill-less Mackerel fish heads. The research was conducted using laboratory experimental method. The experiments were designed into Randomized Block Design with difference temperatures (85 °C, 75 °C, and 65 °C). Each of the temperature treatments was made in triplicate. The quality variables to be observed were free fatty acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, moisture content, yield and sensory value. The quality variables which made the best treatment was then tested using the fatty acid profile test for the best crude fish oil product. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA, and the difference among the treatments were tested using HSD test.The research result showed that the temperature difference in crude fish oil processing from gill-less Mackerel fish heads using the simple steam jacketed method gave significantly different effect on free fatty acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, and yield. However, did not give significantly different effect on sensory value. The best product quality was obtained from the product which was processed at 65 °C for 20 minutes, the product contains fatty acid omega-3 and omega-6. 
Keywords: Kepala ikan Mackerel; Minyak ikan kasar; Steam jacketed sederhana

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