FLUKTUASI KANDUNGAN AMONIA DAN BEBAN CEMARAN LINGKUNGAN TAMBAK UDANG VANAME INTENSIF DENGAN TEKNIK PANEN PARSIAL DAN PANEN TOTAL Fluctuations of Ammonia and Pollution load in Intensive Vannamei Shrimp Pond Harvested Using Partial and Total Method

*Bayu Romadhona -  Program Studi Pascasarjana Ilmu Lingkungan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Bambang Yulianto -  Program Studi Pascasarjana Ilmu Lingkungan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Sudarno Sudarno -  Program Studi Pascasarjana Ilmu Lingkungan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Published: 25 Feb 2016.
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Abstract

 

Kemajuan teknologi budidaya udang di Indonesia semakin pesat, seiring dengan berkembangnya budidaya Udang Putih Vaname (Litopenaus vannamei), sebagai komoditas ekonomis di tambak selain udang windu dan bandeng. Budidaya intensif Udang Vaname dicirikan dengan padat penebaran benih tinggi dan penggunaan pakan tambahan. Manajemen pakan yang kurang baik, berakibat pada timbulnya sisa pakan, secara perlahan-lahan akan meningkatkan kadar bahan pencemar dan menurunkan kualitas air tambak. Upaya yang dikembangkan untuk mengurangi masukan nutrien dari pakan selama budidaya udang vaname intensif adalah metode panen parsial, yaitu melakukan pemanenan udang secara bertahap (parsial) saat proses budidaya berlangsung. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi fluktuasi amoniak, menganalisa sumbangan beban cemaran amoniak ke lingkungan serta mengkaji kelayakan usaha budidaya udang vaname intensif dengan teknik panen parsial dan panen total. Panen parsial dilaksanakan umur 65 hari pada petak 2B, sedangkan panen total petak 2A dan 2B umur 80 hari pemeliharaan. Hasil yang diperoleh kandungan amoniak di akhir periode pemeliharaan petak 2A (panen total) dan petak 2B (panen parsial) adalah 0,120 mg/l dan 0,050 mg/l dengan nilai indeks kualitas air Prakash yang sama yaitu 51,11 kriteria kualitas air sedang. Sumbangan beban cemaran amoniak terhadap lingkungan petak 2A sebesar 7,667 kg/ha/th, petak 2B sebesar 3,164 kg/ha/th. Penilaian kelayakan ekonomi dari biomassa Udang Vaname yang dipanen secara total dan parsial. Hasil perhitungan teknik panen total nilai NPV Rp 88.448.362: IRR 27,09 ; B/C 2,11, teknik panen parsial NPV Rp 426.601.399 ; IRR 69,02: B/C 2,30. Kedua teknik panen mencerminkan usaha layak untuk dilanjutkan. Teknik panen parsial. mampu meminalkan sumbangan beban cemaran ke lingkungan serta memberikan keuntungan usaha lebih besar Rp 9.063.000/siklus/petak dibandingkan teknik panen total. Perlu adanya upaya pengolahan buangan air limbah di akhir pemeliharaan sebelum dibuang ke perairan umum agar memenuhi syarat baku mutu effluent.

 

Technological development of shrimp farming in Indonesia is growing rapidly, along with the development of white shrimp(Litopenaus vannamei) aquaculture, which is an economically viable commodity in pond culture besides tiger prawn and milkfish. Vanamei intensive shrimp aquaculture is characterized by a high stocking density of seeds and the use of additional feed. Poor feed management will result in the increase of food residue and gradually increases the levels of pollutants that degrade the water quality. Efforts to reduce nutrient inputs of feed for shrimp farming is partial harvesting method by harvesting shrimp in stages (partial) during the period of culture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluctuation of ammonia, analyzing environmental contaminant load and study the feasibility of intensive shrimp farming of vanamei with partial harvesting techniques and the total harvest. Partial harvest was held at the age of 65 days for plots 2B, while the total harvest was done at plots 2A and 2B at 80 days. The results of ammonia concentration at the end of the culture period 2A plots (total harvest) and plots 2B (partial harvest) was 0.120 mg / l and 0.050 mg / l respectively, with similar Prakash water quality index of 51.11. Ammonia contamination load in plots 2A was 7,667 kg / ha/years, and plots 2B was  3,164 kg / ha/years. Results of the NPV value of total harvest was Rp 88,448,362: IRR 27.09; B / C of 2.11 whereas for partial harvesting techniques NPV Rp 426 601 399; IRR 69.02: B / C 2.30. Partial method  techniques of vanamei harvest can be minimalizing contaminant load in environmental and was more feasible because it provides greater profit of Rp. 9.063 million / cycle / plot. Efforts are required to discharge wastewater treatment at the end of the culture period before being released into the surrounding environment in order to meet the required effluent quality standarts.

 
Keywords
vaname; amonia; intensif; panen parsial; panen total

Article Metrics:

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