PENINGKATAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN IMUNITAS BENIH TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra DENGAN MELALUI PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK DALAM PAKAN (Improvement of Growth and Immunity of Sandfish, Holothuria scabra Juvenile Through the use of Probiotics in Feed)

*Sari Budi Moria Sembiring  -  Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan Gondol, Indonesia
Zeny Widi Astuti  -  Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan Gondol, Indonesia
Nyoman Adiasmara Giri  -  Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan Gondol, Indonesia
Haryanti Haryanti Haryanti  -  Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan Gondol, Indonesia
Received: 15 Aug 2019; Published: 10 Aug 2020.
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Abstract

Probiotik sebagai suplemen pakan yang mengandung mikroorganisme untuk mengendalikan patogen, meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan kekebalan/respon imun. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh probiotik terhadap pertumbuhan, kekebalan dan kerentanan terhadap Vibrio sp pada teripang pasir. Metoda penelitian ini diawali dengan mengkultur probiotik Gamma proteobacterium strain M-4, Bacillus subtilis strain Q-1 dan Bacillus sp strain E-2 dengan kepadatan108-9 CFU/mL, pencampuran dalam pakan dan aplikasi probiotik untuk pemeliharaan benih teripang pasir. Pemeliharaan  benih teripang pasir dengan ukuran bobot tubuh  6,0 ± 1,4 g dan panjang total 4,3 ± 0,6 cm dalam bak beton volume 1m3 sebanyak 12 buah. Jumlah benih yang ditebar sebanyak 100 ekor/bak dan  penelitian berlangsung selama 4 bulan. Perlakuan adalah penggunaan pakan buatan dengan penambahan probiotik (A) dan  tanpa penambahan probiotik sebagai kontrol (B). Dosis pemberian pakan sebanyak 3% dari bobot tubuh dan frekuensi pemberian 1 kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah performa pertumbuhan dan tingkat imunitas setelah diuji tantang dengan V. azureus strain 4C-1. Tingkat imunitas dianalisis melalui ekspresi gen menggunakan RT-qPCR pada target gen: SOD, LZM dan CAT. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan penggunaan kombinasi probiotik yang dicampur pada pakan pellet memberikan sintasan (95,3%) dan bobot akhir (10,3 g) lebih tinggi dan berbeda nyata (P<0.05) dibandingkan dengan kontrol (88,8% dan 8,1 g). Respon imunitas pada benih juga menunjukkan peningkatan.  19 - 21 kali lebih tinggi setelah diuji tantang dengan V. azureus, terutama pada target gen LZM dan SOD. Sebagai kesimpulan, penggunaan probiotik strain bakteri Gamma proteobacterium, Bacillus subtilis dan Bacillus sp. dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan imunitas benih teripang pasir. 

 

Probiotics as feed supplements to control pathogens and to promote growth and immune / immune responses. The study was to determine the effect of probiotics on growth, immunity and susceptibility to the pathogen Vibrio sp. Research method begins with culturing probiotics Gamma proteobacterium strain M-4, Bacillus subtilis strain Q-1 and Bacillus sp strain E-2 each to a density of 108-9 CFU/mL, mixed with the feed and applied probiotics for rearing of sand fish juvenile. Sandfish juvenile with body weight of 6.0 ± 1.4 g and total length of 4.3 ± 0.6 cm were reared in 12 concrete tanks, each 1m3 in volume. The number of juvenile stocked was 100 individual/tank and conducted in four months. Treatments were the use of artificial feed with the addition of probiotics (A) and without the addition of probiotics as control (B). Feeding rate applied was 3 % of total biomass and fed once per day. The parameters observed were growth performance and level of immunity after being challenged with V. azureus strain 4C-1. The immunity rate analized were gene expression using RT-qPCR and gene target were SOD, LZM and CAT.  The results obtained showed that the use of combination of probiotics and mixed in pellet feed gave a higher survival rate (95.3%) and a higher final weight (10.3 g) (P <0.05) compared to control pellet feed (88.8% and 8.1 g respectively). The immune response of juvenile was also improved 19-21 times higher after being tested with V. azureus, especially in the LZM and SOD gene targets. In conclusion, the role of the use of probiotics Gamma proteobacterium, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus sp. were able to increase the growth and immunity of sandfish juvenile.

Keywords: Imunitas; pertumbuhan; probiotik; benih; teripang pasir

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