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PERBANDINGAN KANDUNGAN MIKROPLASTIK PADA KERANG DARAH DAN KERANG TAHU DARI PERAIRAN DESA BANYUURIP, GRESIK

*Defri Yona orcid scopus  -  Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Indonesia
Carina Daisy Samantha  -  Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Indonesia
Rarasrum Dyah Kasitowati  -  Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Indonesia

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Abstract

Keberadaan mikroplastik di perairan yang terus meningkat telah diketahui berpotensi masuk ke dalam berbagai jenis biota laut termasuk kerang. Kerang darah (Tegilarca granosa) dan kerang tahu (Meretrix meretrix) adalah jenis organisme yang hidup pada substrat perairan dan bersifat filter feeder sehingga potensi penyerapan mikroplastik cukup tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis serta membandingkan akumulasi mikroplastik pada kedua jenis kerang di perairan Desa Banyuurip, Gresik. Pengambilan data lapang terdiri dari sampel sedimen dan kerang dilakukan pada Bulan Maret 2019 pada lima stasiun berbeda yaitu muara Sungai Bengawan Solo, laut terbuka, hutan mangrove, tempat pelelangan ikan dan tambak. Pada setiap stasiun diambil sebanyak ± 1 kg sedimen serta 10 ekor kerang per spesies dengan ukuran cangkang 4-6 cm yang diasumsikan sebagai fase kerang dewasa. Analisis mikroplastik dilakukan di laboratorium melalui tahapan destruksi bahan organik menggunakan H2O2 30 % serta identifikasi mikroplastik secara visual menggunakan mikroskop. Tiga jenis mikroplastik (fiber, film dan fragmen) ditemukan pada sedimen dan kedua jenis kerang dengan dominansi jenis fiber (> 75 %) diikuti oleh fragmen (20 %) dan film (< 2 %). Fiber dan fragmen ditemukan pada seluruh sampel kerang, sedangkan film hanya ditemukan pada beberapa sampel saja. Tidak terdapat perbedaan kelimpahan total mikroplastik antar jenis kerang, namun kelimpahan total mikroplastik ditemukan berbeda antar stasiun penelitian (p < 0,01) dengan kelimpahan tertinggi pada kerang yang hidup di habitat mangrove. Hutan mangrove yang selalu mendapat masukan air laut serta jenis akar pohon mangrove yang bersifat menjebak sedimen memungkinkan akumulasi mikroplastik cukup tinggi sehingga dapat mempengaruhi keberadaan mikroplastik pada kerang.

 

The quantity of microplastic in the marine environment has increased significantly and it could lead to the accumulation in the marine organisms such as mussels and clams. Blood cockle (Tegilarca granosa) and Asiatic hard clam (Meretrix meretrix) are benthic organisms and their feeding mode could expose them to microplastic in the sediment. This study aimed to analyze and compare microplastic accumulation in both mussels in Banyuurip coastal water, Gresik. Sediment and mussel samples were collected on March 2019 from five sampling stations: Bengawan Solo river mouth, seaward area, mangrove, fish landing station dan shrimp culture site. About 1 kg sediment samples and 10 individual mussels in the size of 4−6 cm from each species were collected from each sampling station. Microplastic analysis was conducted in the laboratory by digesting organic matter using H2O2 30 % and the identification was conducted visually using microscope. Three types of microplastic (fiber, film and fragment) was found from the sediment and mussel samples with the domination of fiber (75 %) followed by fragment (20 %) dan film (< 2 %). Fiber and fragment were observed in all sediment and mussel samples, whereas film was available only in certain samples. Statistical test revealed no significant difference in the concentrations of microplastic between the two mussels, however, the differences were observed in the concentrations of microplastic among the sampling stations (p < 0.01).  Higher concentration of microplastic was found in the mussels from mangrove area due to its rooting system that could trap microplastics.

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Keywords: Meretrix meretrix; mikroplastik; Laut Jawa; Tegilarca granosa; mangrove

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