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Desalination of Agricultural Wastewater by Solar Adsorption System: A Numerical Study

1Department of Energy Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq

2Al-Khawarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq

3Department of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Industries, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon 51001, Iraq

Received: 3 Jun 2021; Revised: 20 Jul 2021; Accepted: 5 Aug 2021; Available online: 16 Aug 2021; Published: 1 Nov 2021.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
There are still areas around the world suffer from severe shortage of freshwater supplies. Desalination technologies are not widely used due to their high energy usage, cost, and environmental damaging effects. In this study, a mathematical model of single-bed adsorption desalination system using silica gel-water as working pair is developed and validated via earlier experiments. A very good match between the model predictions and the experimental results is recorded. The objective is to reveal the factors affecting the productivity of fresh water and cooling effect in the solar adsorption system. The proposed model is setup for solving within the commercially-available software (Engineering Equation Solver). It is implemented to solve the mass and heat balance equations for the adsorbent bed, condenser, and evaporator components. At a typical temperature of 89 °C and flow rate of 30 m3/sec for the hot water entering the bed, the following results are reported: (a) the specific daily water production of 1.89 m3 /ton of silica gel/ day, (b) coefficient of performance of 0.32, and (c) specific cooling power of 40.82 W/kg of silica gel. The concentration of salt (X) in the product (desalinated water) has been set with value of 0.5 gm/kg to be suitable for drinking and irrigation. The salt concentration in the evaporator is estimated to be 4.611 gm/kg during the overall adsorption process. The results from this study should be of wide interest for the field of solar water desalination and air-conditioning.
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Keywords: Solar desalination; Agricultural wastewater; Adsorption; Single bed; numerical modelling

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