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Sustainable Design of a Near-Zero-Emissions Building Assisted by a Smart Hybrid Renewable Microgrid

1Department of Mechanical and Biosystems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of

2Advanced Material Research Cluster, Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, University of Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia

Received: 2 Jan 2022; Revised: 8 Feb 2022; Accepted: 15 Feb 2022; Available online: 25 Feb 2022; Published: 5 May 2022.
Editor(s): Grigorios Kyriakopoulos
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
Renewable energy regulations place a premium on both the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements. One of the growing milestones in building construction is the invention of green cottages. Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) technologies have been proved to aid buildings that partially meet their energy demand as sustainable solar energy generating technologies throughout the previous decade. Curved facades provide a challenge for typical photovoltaics. This study designed, produced, and assessed elastic solar panels supported by flexible photovoltaic systems (FPVS) on a 1 m2 layer. The LabVIEW program recognizes and transmits online data on warm and dry climates. The fill factor was 88% and 84%, respectively, when installed on the silo and biogas surfaces. The annual energy output was 810 kWh on a flat surface, 960 kWh on a cylindrical surface, and 1000 kWh on a hemisphere surface. Economic analysis indicates that the NPV at Flat surface is $ 697.52, with an IRR of 34.81% and an 8.5-year capital return period. Cylindrical surfaces and hemispheres both get a $ 955.18 increase. For cylindrical and hemispheric buildings, the investment yield was 39.29% and 40.47%, respectively. A 20% increase in fixed investment boosted the IRR by 21.3% in the flat system. While the cylindrical system had a 25.59% raise, the hemisphere saw a 24.58% gain
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Keywords: Renewable Energy; Building Integrated Photovoltaic; Sustainable; Flexible Photovoltaic Systems; LabVIEW.

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