skip to main content

Enhanced Geothermal Systems – Promises and Challenges

Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, 382007, Gujarat, India

Received: 9 Sep 2021; Revised: 10 Nov 2021; Accepted: 1 Dec 2021; Available online: 25 Dec 2021; Published: 1 May 2022.
Editor(s): Grigorios Kyriakopoulos
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Geothermal energy plays a very important role in the energy basket of the world. However, understanding the geothermal hotspots and exploiting the same from deep reservoirs, by using advanced drilling technologies, is a key challenge. This study focuses on reservoirs at a depth greater than 3 km and temperatures more than 150°C. These resources are qualified as Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Artificially induced technologies are employed to enhance the reservoir permeability and fluid saturation. The present study concentrates on EGS resources, their types, technologies employed to extract energy and their applications in improving power generation. Studies on fracture stimulation using hydraulic fracturing and hydro shearing are also evaluated. The associated micro-seismic events and control measures for the same are discussed in this study. Various simulators for reservoir characterization and description are also analyzed and presented. Controlled fluid injection and super critical CO2 as heat transmission fluid are described for the benefit of the readers. The advantages of using CO2 over water and its role in reducing the carbon footprint are brought out in this paper for further studies.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS); Hydraulic fracturing; Numerical simulators; Micro-seismicity; CO2 fluid; Renewable

Article Metrics:

  1. Abu Aisha, M., Loret, B. and Eaton, D., (2016). Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Hydraulic fracturing in a thermo-poroelastic framework. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 146, 1179-1191.
  2. Archer, R., (2020). Geothermal energy. In Future Energy, 431-445, Elsevier.
  3. Barker, J.W., (1997), March. Wellbore design with reduced clearance between casing strings. In SPE/IADC drilling conference. OnePetro.
  4. Beckers, K.F. and McCabe, K., 2019. GEOPHIRES v2.0: updated geothermal techno- economic simulation tool. Geothermal Energy, 7(1), pp. 1-28
  5. Benzie, S., Burge, P. and Dobson, A., (2000), October. Towards a Mono-Diameter Well-Advances in Expanding Tubing Technology. In SPE European Petroleum Conference OnePetro.
  6. Bijay, K.C. and Ghazanfari, E., (2021). Geothermal reservoir stimulation through hydro-shearing: An experimental study under conditions close to enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics, 96, 102200.
  7. Bogie, I., Lawless, J.V., Rychagov, S. and Belousov, V., (2005). Magmatic-related hydrothermal systems: Classification of the types of geothermal systems and their ore mineralization. Proceedings of Geoconference in Russia, Kuril
  8. Bower, K.M., (1996). A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass (No. LA-13153-T). Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States).
  9. Brown, D.W., (2000), January. A hot dry rock geothermal energy concept utilizing supercritical CO2 instead of water. In Proceedings of the twenty-fifth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering, Stanford University, 233-238
  10. Chen, J. and Jiang, F., (2016). A numerical study of EGS heat extraction process based on a thermal non-equilibrium model for heat transfer in subsurface porous heat reservoir. Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(2), 255-267.
  11. Chen, S., Ding, B., Gong, L., Huang, Z., Yu, B. and Sun, S., (2020). Comparison of multi-field coupling numerical simulation in hot dry rock thermal exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems.
  12. Cheng, P., (1979). Heat transfer in geothermal systems. In Advances in heat transfer 14, 1-105. Elsevier.
  13. Cornet, F.H., Jianmin, Y. and Martel, L., (1992). Stress heterogeneities and flow paths in a granite rock mass. In Pre-Workshop Volume for the Workshop on Induced Seismicity, 33rd US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, 184
  14. Cui, X. and Wong, L.N.Y., (2021). A 3D thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling model for enhanced geothermal systems. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 143, 104744.
  15. De Simone, S., 2017. Induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems: assessment of thermo-hydro-mechanical effects
  16. DiPippo, R. (2012). Geothermal power plants: principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact. Butterworth-Heinemann
  17. Dobson, P.F., Kneafsey, T.J., Nakagawa, S., Sonnenthal, E.L., Voltolini, M., Smith, J.T. and Borglin, S.E., (2021). Fracture Sustainability in Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Experimental and Modeling Constraints. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 143(10), 100901.
  18. Dunn, J.C., (1987). Status of the magma energy project
  19. Filippov, A., Mack, R., Cook, L., York, P., & Ring, L. (1999). Expandable tubular solutions. In SPE annual technical conference and exhibition: Houston TX, 3-6 October 1999. Volume delta: Drilling and completion, 169-184
  20. Gan, Q. and Lei, Q., (2020). Induced fault reactivation by thermal perturbation in enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics, 86, 101814.
  21. Geddes, C.J. and Curlett, H.B., (2005), November. Leveraging a New Energy Source to Enhance Heavy Oil and Oilsands Production. In SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium. OnePetro.
  22. Ghassemi, A., Tarasovs, S. and Cheng, A.D., (2007). A 3-D study of the effects of thermomechanical loads on fracture slip in enhanced geothermal reservoirs. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 44(8), 1132-1148.
  23. Häring, M.O., Schanz, U., Ladner, F. and Dyer, B.C., (2008). Characterisation of the Basel 1 enhanced geothermal system. Geothermics, 37(5), 469-495.
  24. Huenges, E., (2016). Enhanced geothermal systems: Review and status of research and development. Geothermal power generation, 743-761.
  25. Jing, Z., Wills-Richards, J., Watanabe, K. and Hashida, T., (1998), September. A new 3-D stochastic model for HDR geothermal reservoir in fractured crystalline rock. In Proceedings of the 4th international HDR forum, Strasbourg
  26. Johnston, I.W., Narsilio, G.A. and Colls, S., (2011). Emerging geothermal energy technologies. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(4), 643-653.
  27. Kitsou, O., (2000). Power generation from geothermal resources: challenges and opportunities. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  28. Kohl, T. and Hopkirk, R.J., (1995). “FRACure”—A simulation code for forced fluid flow and transport in fractured, porous rock. Geothermics, 24(3), 333-343.
  29. Li, J., 2020. Investigations of fluid flow through fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems
  30. Li, M. and Lior, N., 2015. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing and reservoir performance in enhanced geothermal systems. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 137(4).
  31. Majer, E.L., Baria, R., Stark, M., Oates, S., Bommer, J., Smith, B. and Asanuma, H., (2007). Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics, 36(3), 185-222.
  32. McClure, M.W. and Horne, R.N., (2014). An investigation of stimulation mechanisms in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 72, 242-260.
  33. Olasolo, P., Juárez, M.C., Morales, M.P. and Liarte, I.A., (2016). Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS): A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, 133-144.
  34. Pan, F., McPherson, B.J. and Kaszuba, J., (2017). Evaluation of CO2-fluid-rock interaction in enhanced geothermal systems: field-scale geochemical simulations. Geofluids, 2017.
  35. Park, S., Kim, K.I., Kwon, S., Yoo, H., Xie, L., Min, K.B. and Kim, K.Y., (2018). Development of a hydraulic stimulation simulator toolbox for enhanced geothermal system design. Renewable Energy, 118, 879-895
  36. Polizzotti, R.S., Hirsch, L.L., Herhold, A.B. and Ertas, M.D., (2003). Hydrothermal drilling method and system. Patent publication date, 3
  37. Portier, S., André, L. and Vuataz, F.D., (2007). Review on chemical stimulation techniques in oil industry and applications to geothermal systems. Engine, work package, 4, 32
  38. Potter, R.M. and Tester, J.W., (1998). Continuous Drilling of Vertical Boreholes by Thermal Processes: Including Rock Spallation and Fusion. US Patent No. 5,771,984
  39. Pruess, K., (1991). TOUGH2-A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow
  40. Pruess, K., (2006). Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) using CO2 as working fluid—A novel approach for generating renewable energy with simultaneous sequestration of carbon. Geothermics, 35(4), 351-367.
  41. Rathnaweera, T.D., Wu, W., Ji, Y. and Gamage, R.P., (2020). Understanding injection-induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems: From the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical process to anthropogenic earthquake prediction. Earth-Science Reviews, 205, 103182.
  42. Sadrehaghighi, I., Multiphase Flow
  43. Safari, R. and Ghassemi, A., (2015). 3D thermo-poroelastic analysis of fracture network deformation and induced micro-seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics, 58, 1-14.
  44. Salimzadeh, S. and Nick, H.M., (2019). A coupled model for reactive flow through deformable fractures in enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics, 81, 88-100.
  45. Sanyal, S.K., 2010, February. Future of geothermal energy. In Proceedings
  46. Sanyal, S.K., Butler, S.J., Swenson, D. and Hardeman, B., (2000). Review of the state-of-the-art of numerical simulation of enhanced geothermal systems. TRANSACTIONS-GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL, 181-186
  47. Song, W., Wang, C., Du, Y., Shen, B., Chen, S. and Jiang, Y., (2020). Comparative analysis on the heat transfer efficiency of supercritical CO2 and H2O in the production well of enhanced geothermal system. Energy, 205, 118071.
  48. Stewart, R.B., Gill, D.S., Lohbeck, W.C.M. and Baaijens, M.N., (1996), October. An expandable slotted tubing, fibre-cement wellbore lining system. In European Petroleum Conference. OnePetro.
  49. Swenson, D. and Hardeman, B., (1997). The effects of thermal deformation on flow in a jointed geothermal reservoir. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 34(3-4), 308-e1.
  50. Tester, J.W., Anderson, B.J., Batchelor, A.S., Blackwell, D.D., DiPippo, R., Drake, E.M., Garnish, J., Livesay, B., Moore, M.C., Nichols, K. and Petty, S., (2006). The future of geothermal energy. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 358
  51. Tezuka, K. and Watanabe, K., (2000). Fracture network modeling of Hijiori hot dry rock reservoir by deterministic and stochastic crack network simulator (D/SC). Proc. World Geotherm. Cong, 3933-3938
  52. Wang, C.L., Cheng, W.L., Nian, Y.L., Yang, L., Han, B.B. and Liu, M.H., (2018). Simulation of heat extraction from CO2-based enhanced geothermal systems considering CO2 sequestration. Energy, 142, 157-167.
  53. Wu, Y., Li, P., Hao, Y., Wanniarachchi, A., Zhang, Y., & Peng, S. (2021). Experimental research on carbon storage in a CO2-Based enhanced geothermal system. Renewable Energy, 175, 68-79.
  54. Xu, T., Feng, G. and Shi, Y., (2014). On fluid–rock chemical interaction in CO2-based geothermal systems. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 144, 179-193.
  55. Yamamoto, T., Kitano, K., Fujimitsu, Y. and Ohnishi, H., (1997). Application of simulation code, GEOTH3D, on the Ogachi HDR site. In Proceedings, 22rd Annual Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering
  56. Yao, C., Shao, Y. and Yang, J., (2018). Numerical investigation on the influence of areal flow on EGS thermal exploitation based on the 3-D TH single fracture model. Energies, 11(11), 3026.
  57. Zheng, S., Li, S. and Zhang, D., (2021). Fluid and heat flow in enhanced geothermal systems considering fracture geometrical and topological complexities: An extended embedded discrete fracture model. Renewable Energy, 179, 163-178.
  58. Zhenzi, J., (1998). Simulation of heat extraction from fractured geothermal reservoirs. PhD thesis, Tohoku University, Japan
  59. Zhou, D., Tatomir, A. and Sauter, M., (2021). Thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling study of heat extraction and flow processes in enhanced geothermal systems. Advances in Geosciences, 54, 229-240.
  60. Zyvoloski, G.A., Robinson, B.A., Dash, Z.V. and Trease, L.L., (1997). Summary of the models and methods for the FEHM application-a finite-element heat-and mass-transfer code (No. LA-13307-MS). Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US).

Last update:

  1. Empathetic Leadership and Purpose-Driven Strategies in the Global CCUS Landscape - Deliberating the Economic Feasibility and Prudent Risk Mitigation for the Implementation of CCUS within the North American and Global Ecosystem - Scrutinizing Ecosystem Consequences and Alleviating HS Hazards, with an Emphasis on Rigorous Well Testing and Enhanced Safety Protocols

    Muhammad Sami Khan, Clifford Louis, Abdul Ahad Manzoor, Syed Imran Ali, Shaine Muhammad Ali Laliji, Muhammad Affan Uddin Ali Khan, Syed Muhammad Aun Ali, Javed Haneef, Faiq Azhar Abbasi, Nimra Yousaf. Day 2 Tue, February 13, 2024, 2024. doi: 10.2523/IPTC-23670-MS
  2. Review on heat extraction systems of hot dry rock: Classifications, benefits, limitations, research status and future prospects

    Mingzheng Qiao, Zefeng Jing, Chenchen Feng, Minghui Li, Cheng Chen, Xupeng Zou, Yujuan Zhou. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 196 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2024.114364
  3. A Theoretical Study on the Thermal Performance of an Increasing Pressure Endothermic Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation

    Hao Yu, Xinli Lu, Wei Zhang, Jiali Liu. Energies, 17 (5), 2024. doi: 10.3390/en17051031
  4. Geothermal Fields of India

    Kriti Yadav, Anirbid Sircar, Manan Shah. 2024. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-53364-8_3
  5. Recent Advances in Machine Learning Research for Nanofluid-Based Heat Transfer in Renewable Energy System

    Prabhakar Sharma, Zafar Said, Anurag Kumar, Sandro Nižetić, Ashok Pandey, Anh Tuan Hoang, Zuohua Huang, Asif Afzal, Changhe Li, Anh Tuan Le, Xuan Phuong Nguyen, Viet Dung Tran. Energy & Fuels, 36 (13), 2022. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c01006
  6. Advances in enhanced geothermal systems: Integrating laboratory, numerical and field insights

    Jian Liu, Chun Shao, Baolin Yang, Mbega Ramadhani Ngata, Mathew Mwangomba, Sadock Josephat, Mohammed Dahiru Aminu. Applied Thermal Engineering, 249 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2024.123350

Last update: 2024-05-22 10:18:38

No citation recorded.