skip to main content

A four-line active shunt filter to enhance the power quality in a microgrid

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, University of Relizane, Relizane, Algeria

2Laboraoire de Simulation, Commande, Analyse et Maintenance des Réseaux Electriques(LSCAMRE), National Polytechnic School of Oran-Maurice Audin, Oran, Algeria

3Laboratoire de Développement Durable de l'Énergie Électrique(LDDEE), University of Science and Technology Mohamed Boudiaf, Oran, Algeria

Received: 15 Nov 2022; Revised: 5 Mar 2023; Accepted: 25 Mar 2023; Available online: 3 Apr 2023; Published: 15 May 2023.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

In recent years, power quality has become a major concern for electric network managers. Active filtering control schemes ensure improved power quality of the electric network and are able to maintain a desired voltage level at the point of connection, regardless of the current absorbed by nonlinear loads. Harmonics can cause vibrations, equipment distortion, losses and sweatiness in transformers. The main objective of this work is to enhance the quality of energy in a microgrid consisting of 100 kW photovoltaic (PV) system and a 50 kW battery storage connected to nonlinear and unbalanced loads. This paper proposes a the four-arm parallel active filter with a on Proportional-Integral (PI) controller to mitigate the harmonic problems in a microgrid. In addition, an algorithm has been designed to eliminate the neutral current. The identification function is one of the most particular approach for extracting harmonics, it involves providing a current reference imposed by the active filter in order to carry out the filtering operation. Both the performance and the quality of the current harmonic compensation's depend strongly on the strategy adopted for the generating the current reference. In this work, the instantaneous power strategy p-q is chosen outstanding the simplicity and effectiveness in implementation. The proposed control strategy has been tested under simulations and the results have shown good tracking of the references and a significant reduction in the Total Harmonic Distorsion (THD) level under highly unbalanced conditions of the nonlinear loads. The current THD is reduced from 43.64 before filtering to 3.74% after the application of the four-arm filter, following the recommendations of IEEE-519 standard (THD less than 5%).

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Harmonic pollution; non-linear load; active parallel filter; neutrality fault; the pq method; quadruple-wire inverter

Article Metrics:

  1. Acharya, D. P., Choudhury, S., & Nayak, N. (2022). Optimal Design of Shunt Active Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement and Reactive Power Management Using nm-Predator Prey Based Firefly Algorithm. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), 12(1), 383 397.
  2. Akagi, H., Watanabe, E. H., & Aredes, M. (2017). Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Albasri, F. A., Al-Mawsawi, S. A., & Al-Mahari, M. (2022). A pot line rectiformer scheme with hybrid-shunt active power filter. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), 13(1), 1-10.
  4. Amini, M., Khorsandi, A., Vahidi, B., Hosseinian, S. H., & Malakmahmoudi, A. (2021). Optimal sizing of battery energy storage in a microgrid considering capacity degradation and replacement year. Electric Power Systems Research, 195, 107170.
  5. Asgharian, H., & Baniasadi, E. (2019). A review on modeling and simulation of solar energy storage systems based on phase change materials. Journal of Energy Storage, 21, 186-201.
  6. Azzam-Jai, A., & Ouassaid, M. (2019, October). Photovoltaic Interfaced Shunt Active Power Filter Under Online-Varying Parameters Based On Fuzzy Logic Controller And Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Controller. In 2019 Third International Conference on Intelligent Computing in Data Sciences (ICDS) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
  7. Barva, A. V., & Bhavsar, P. R. (2018, February). Design and simulation of four-leg based three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter. In 2018 International Conference on Communication information and Computing Technology (ICCICT) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  8. Başoğlu, M. E. (2022). Comprehensive review on distributed maximum power point tracking: Submodule level and module level MPPT strategies. Solar Energy, 241, 85-108.
  9. Belalia, K., Khodja, M., Bouzeboudja, H., Bendiabdellah, A., & Mostefa, A. (2021). Network current quality enhancement under nonlinear and unbalanced load conditions using a four-wire inverter-based active shunt filter. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IJEEI), 9(3), 601-614.
  10. Benedicte, M., & Moses, P. M. (2022, August). Design of Hybrid Active Power Filters (HAPFs) for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Using Modified pq theory. In 2022 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
  11. Bezerra, M. A., Oliveira, J. L., Praça, P. P., Oliveira, D. S., & Barreto, L. H. S. (2017, March). Proposal of a control scheme for an active filter on PV micro-inverter applications. In 2017 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC) (pp. 2830-2837). IEEE.
  12. Boukadoum, A., Bahi, T., Bouguerne, A., & Merbet, H. (2022, October). Faults Diagnosis of Active Power Filter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller under Different Conditions. In 2022 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Sciences and Technologies in Maghreb (CISTEM) (Vol. 4, pp. 1-5). IEEE.
  13. Buła, D., Jarek, G., Michalak, J., & Zygmanowski, M. (2021). Control method of four wire active power filter based on three-phase neutral point clamped T-type converter. Energies, 14(24), 8427.
  14. Challa, R. V. K., Mikkili, S., & Bonthagorla, P. K. (2022). Modeling, Controlling Approaches, Modulation Schemes, and Applications of Modular Multilevel Converter. Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems, 1-27.
  15. Chebabhi, A., Fellah, M. K., Kessal, A., & Benkhoris, M. F. (2015). Comparative study of reference currents and DC bus voltage control for Three-Phase Four-Wire Four-Leg SAPF to compensate harmonics and reactive power with 3D SVM. ISA transactions, 57, 360-372.
  16. Chebabhi, A., Fellah, M. K., Kessal, A., & Benkhoris, M. F. (2016). A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers. ISA transactions, 63, 328-342.
  17. Chennai, S. (2022). Unified Power Quality Conditioner Performance based on Multi-level Inverter Topologies using Intelligent Controllers. Algerian Journal of Signals and Systems, 7(3), 109-116.
  18. Collins, C. T., & Green, T. C. (2022, May). DC Power Filter Design for a Neutral-Point Clamped Hybrid Multilevel Converter. In 2022 International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Himeji 2022-ECCE Asia) (pp. 2679-2686). IEEE.
  19. de Araujo Ribeiro, R. L., Rocha, T. D. O. A., de Sousa, R. M., dos Santos, E. C., & Lima, A. M. N. (2014). A robust DC-link voltage control strategy to enhance the performance of shunt active power filters without harmonic detection schemes. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(2), 803-813.
  20. de Jesus, V. M. R., Cupertino, A. F., Xavier, L. S., Pereira, H. A., & Mendes, V. F. (2019). Comparison of MPPT strategies in three-phase photovoltaic inverters applied for harmonic compensation. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 55(5), 5141-5152.
  21. Devassy, S., & Singh, B. (2017). Control of a solar photovoltaic integrated universal active power filter based on a discrete adaptive filter. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 14(7), 3003-3012.
  22. Diab, A. A. Z., Sultan, H. M., Do, T. D., Kamel, O. M., & Mossa, M. A. (2020). Coyote optimization algorithm for parameters estimation of various models of solar cells and PV modules. IEEE Access, 8, 111102-111140.
  23. Dobrucký, B., Kaščák, S., Šedo, J., Praženica, M., & Resutík, P. (2022). Single-Step Response and Determination of Power Components Mean Values of PES Using pq Method during Transients. Applied Sciences, 12(22), 11659.
  24. El Ghaly, A., Tarnini, M., Moubayed, N., & Chahine, K. (2022). A Filter-Less Time-Domain Method for Reference Signal Extraction in Shunt Active Power Filters. Energies, 15(15), 5568.
  25. Goud, B. S., & Rao, B. L. (2021). Power quality enhancement in grid-connected PV/wind/battery using UPQC: atom search optimization. Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 16(2), 821-835.
  26. Hasan, N. S., Rosmin, N., Khalid, S., Osman, D. A. A., Ishak, B., & Mustaamal, A. H. (2017). Harmonic suppression of shunt hybrid filter using LQR-PSO based. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 7(2), 869-876.
  27. Hilali, A., Mardoude, Y., Ben Akka, Y., El Alami, H., & Rahali, A. (2022). Design, modeling and simulation of perturb and observe maximum power point tracking for a photovoltaic water pumping system. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering (2088-8708), 12(4).
  28. Hoon, Y., Mohd Radzi, M. A., Hassan, M. K., & Mailah, N. F. (2016). Enhanced instantaneous power theory with average algorithm for indirect current controlled three-level inverter-based shunt active power filter under dynamic state conditions. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2016.
  29. Huaman, A. R. O., Monzon, I. S. O., & Díaz, E. H. V. (2022, November). Study and simulation of the use of an active filter for the mitigation of current harmonics in electrical systems. In 2022 IEEE ANDESCON (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  30. Kamala, S., Reddy, B. D., Sen, B., Panda, S. K., & Amaratunga, G. (2018, February). Improvement of power quality and reliability in the distribution system of petrochemical plants using active power filters. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT) (pp. 419-424). IEEE.
  31. Khalid, S., & Kumar, S. (2020). ANFIS-SCC Control of Shunt Active Power Filter for Minimization of Harmonics for More Electric Aircraft System. In Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Electrical Engineering (pp. 1-22). IGI Global.
  32. Kumar, M., Uqaili, M. A., Memon, Z. A., & Das, B. (2022). Experimental Harmonics Analysis of UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) System and Mitigation Using Single-Phase Half-Bridge HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter) Based on Novel Fuzzy Logic Current Controller (FLCC) for Reference Current Extraction (RCE). Advances in Fuzzy Systems, 2022.
  33. Kumar, T. S., & Shanmugam, J. (2020). Application of ANFIS Controller to 3-Level NPC Based APF to Improve Power Quality. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(14).
  34. Maciel, L. F. A., Morales, J. L. M., Gaona, D. C., & Pimentel, J. G. M. (2018, November). A study of a three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter for harmonics mitigation. In 2018 IEEE International Autumn Meeting on Power, Electronics and Computing (ROPEC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  35. Mankour, S. E., Belarbi, A. W., & Benmessaoud, M. T. (2017). Modeling and Simulation of a Photovoltaic Field for 13 KW. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering (2088-8708), 7(6).
  36. Nayak, B. P., & Shaw, A. (2017, January). Design of MPPT controllers and PV cells using MATLAB Simulink and their analysis. In 2017 International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  37. Okay, K., Eray, S., & Eray, A. (2022). Development of prototype battery management system for PV system. Renewable Energy, 181, 1294-1304.
  38. Okwako, O. E., Lin, Z. H., Xin, M., Premkumar, K., & Rodgers, A. J. (2022). Neural Network Controlled Solar PV Battery Powered Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Grid Connected Operation. Energies, 15(18), 6825.
  39. Olabi, A. G., Wilberforce, T., Sayed, E. T., Abo-Khalil, A. G., Maghrabie, H. M., Elsaid, K., & Abdelkareem, M. A. (2022). Battery energy storage systems and SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analysis of batteries in power transmission. Energy, 254, 123987.
  40. Patel, A., Joshi, S., & Mehta, B. (2020). Comparative analysis for INC and P&O MPPT based photovoltaic energy conversion system. In Advances in Control Systems and its Infrastructure (pp. 147-159). Springer, Singapore.
  41. Pradhan, A., & Panda, B. (2017). Experimental analysis of factors affecting the power output of the PV module. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 7(6), 3190.
  42. Raman, R., Sadhu, P. K., Kumar, R., Rangarajan, S. S., Subramaniam, U., Collins, E. R., & Senjyu, T. (2022). Feasible Evaluation and Implementation of Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Mitigation in Induction Heating System. Electronics, 11(21), 3464.
  43. Rao, K. K., Rao, P. B. K., & Abishai, T. (2017). Power quality enhancement in grid connected PV systems using high step up DC-DC converter. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 7(2), 720.
  44. Rasul, M. J., Khang, H. V., & Kolhe, M. (2017, August). Harmonic mitigation of a grid-connected photovoltaic system using shunt active filter. In 2017 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS) (pp.1-5) IEEE.
  45. Rath, A., & Srungavarapu, G. (2022). An Advanced Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for Non-ideal Grid Using Predictive DPC. IETE Technical Review, 1-14.
  46. Rohouma, W., Balog, R. S., Peerzada, A. A., & Begovic, M. M. (2020). D-STATCOM for harmonic mitigation in low voltage distribution network with high penetration of nonlinear loads. Renewable Energy, 145, 1449-1464.
  47. Saleh, K., & Madi, A. (2021). A fault-tolerant photovoltaic integrated shunt active power filter with a 27-level inverter. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 11(2), 1166-1177.
  48. Sundarabalan, C. K., Puttagunta, Y., & Vignesh, V. (2019). Fuel cell integrated unified power quality conditioner for voltage and current reparation in four‐wire distribution grid. IET Smart Grid, 2(1), 60-68.
  49. Suresh, P., & Vijayakumar, G. (2020). Shunt active power filter with solar photovoltaic system for long-term harmonic mitigation. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 29(05), 2050081.
  50. Tounsi, M. M., Allali, A., Merabet Boulouiha, H., & Denaï, M. (2021). ANFIS control of a shunt active filter based with a five-level NPC inverter to improve power quality. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
  51. Tsvetanov, D., Djagarov, N., Grozdev, Z., & Djagarova, J. (2022, June). Harmonic Compensation in Ship Power System Using pq Theory Control Based Shunt Active Power Filter. In 2022 8th International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Agricultural Engineering (EE&AE) (pp. 1-10). IEEE.
  52. Wu, D., Ma, X., Fu, T., Hou, Z., Rehm, P. J., & Lu, N. (2022). Design of a Battery Energy Management System for Capacity Charge Reduction. IEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy, 9, 351-360.
  53. Zhang, B., Ping, S., Long, Y., Jiao, Y., & Wu, B. (2022). Research on topology of a novel three-phase four-leg fault-tolerant NPC inverter. Archives of Electrical Engineering, 71(2).
  54. Zhang, L., Li, X., Yang, M., & Chen, W. (2021). High-safety separators for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries: advances and perspective. Energy Storage Materials, 41, 522-545.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2023-10-02 15:53:17

No citation recorded.